Threats and Opportunities of Globalization: Analyzing the Impact of Globalization on Pashto Language


  • Dr. Sana Ullah Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Chitral, Pakistan.
  • Dr. Tariq Ullah Additional Deputy Commissioner Lakki Marwat, PhD in Political Science, Pakistan.
  • Hamza Khan* MPhil Scholar, School of Sociology, Quaid -I- Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.


Cultural Identity, Globalization, Intellectual Assimilation, Threats, Linguistic Performance, Language Erosion


Globalization promotes socio-cultural, political, and economic integration of communities and countries across the globe. Globalization also results in cultural and intellectual assimilation and produce both positive and negative impacts on local cultural fabric particularly languages. The present study aims to find out the threats posed by globalization to local languages and particularly analyze the impact of globalization on Pashto language. The study was conducted in the two Districts including Dir Lower and District Swat of Malakand Division. Primary data was collected from a sample of 12 Pashto Language Lecturers and Assistant Professors (05 from University of Malakand and 07 from different colleges) conveniently selected from the two districts. Data was collected through in-depth interview, using interview guide. The collected information was analyzed qualitatively under different themes to clarify the issue under study, derive study findings and conclusion. The study shows that globalization is an omnipresent phenomenon and despite its positive aspects it has threatened Pashto language and culture at large. It was also found that due to globalization the Pashto dialects, concepts and terminologies have either disappeared or changed which will create identity and cultural preservation issues in future. The study suggests that academician particularly related to Pashto language need to consider severity of the issue and work for preservation of Pashto language to protect cultural identity of Pashtun.




How to Cite

Dr. Sana Ullah, Dr. Tariq Ullah, & Hamza Khan*. (2023). Threats and Opportunities of Globalization: Analyzing the Impact of Globalization on Pashto Language. Pakistan Journal of Society, Education and Language (PJSEL), 9(2), 611–619. Retrieved from