Pakistan Journal of Society, Education and Language (PJSEL) 2021-01-23T06:57:38-05:00 Prof. Dr. Arab Naz Open Journal Systems <p><a href=";id=503537#journal_result"><strong>PJSEL is HEC Recognised Y category journal.</strong></a></p> <p>PJSEL is multi-disciplinary journal following a double-blind peer-reviewed policy and the journal freely available online as well as in print form. The aim of the PJSEL is to publish articles that contribute significantly to the body of knowledge. It publishes both theoretical and empirical articles and case studies relating to social sciences (sociology, anthropology, psychology, political sciences etc), education and English language and literature. Preference is given to contributions based on empirical research. However, book reviews and theoretical papers of immense importance / relevance for social scientists, educationists and linguists are also published.</p> <p><strong>PJSEL</strong> is published in English twice a year. This academic and scholarly peer reviewed journal is available both online and in print.<br />PJSEL hopes that researchers, research scholars, academicians, scientists and policy makers would benefit from the published research for the development of society, education and language studies.</p> <p><strong>PJSEL</strong> welcomes high quality papers in the fields of Social Sciences, Education, Language and Linguistics. Manuscripts submitted are reviewed and published once accepted for publication. All the manuscripts submitted for publication are initially reviewed to ensure they are original, relevant and readable. <strong>PJSEL</strong> encourages online submission. In case of justified reasons, manuscripts can also be addressed to <a href=""><strong></strong></a></p> <p><img src="blob:" alt="Licensing and Citation – Teaching With Rich Media" /></p> <p> </p> A FUTURISTIC VIEW ON IMPACT OF CHINA PAKISTAN ECONOMIC CORRIDOR ON LINGUISTIC ECOLOGY OF PAKISTAN 2020-12-07T01:20:53-05:00 <p>Language change, shift and death are dynamic processes which happen under several socio- historical, demographic, geographic and linguistic metamorphoses in the world. The economic romance with China Pakistan Economic Corridor is considered to be a "game and fate changer" for the regions especially South Asia, South East Asia, Middle East and even Africa. Whether this economic consecration would also result into changes in social dynamics or consequences in the forms of linguistic apocalypse, socio-cultural cataclysm and evolution in the literary produce would become a serious cause of ''game and fate changer'' for linguistic ecology of the regions. Perhaps, the history has not observed and witnessed pidginization, creolization and hybridization of languages at such a large scale that CPEC is going to leave nothing more than a byproduct. Here we hypothesize that this by product would change the linguistic ecology of Pakistan altogether which poses serious challenges for language maintenance in different domains of its function. <br><br></p> 2020-12-07T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 PUBLISH OR PERISH: DECONSTRUCTING RESEARCH CULTURE IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTES OF PAKISTAN 2020-12-07T01:53:12-05:00 <p>Pakistan has witnessed a conspicuous reformation in the higher education landscape since the establishment of Higher Education Commission (HEC) in 2002. One of the most vibrant indicators of this transformation has been the HEC’s unswerving tenacity to develop a research culture at Higher Education Institutes (HEIs). Consequently, the obsession of research in Pakistani universities is now in its full swing and research productivity has become a matter of survival both for the faculty and students with a neologism, publish or Perish. However, the quality, originality, philosophical and applied contributions of the research outputs have remained under serious criticism engendering severe apprehensions over the ontological configuration and philosophy of contemporary research enterprise. This ethnographic exploration is based upon the participant observation (PO) in 4 public and private universities in Islamabad explores whether mere pressure to publish for survival is enough to produce a genuine research culture? The narratives of researchers were explored to comprehend those issues which impede the development of conducive research culture. Methodological triangulation was applied using In-depth-interview and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with faculty members and research students of M.Phil and PhD degrees. The findings suggest that although the pressure to publish has ominously increased the research output, departmental politics, lack of research and writing competency, and philosophical estrangement from research credo deterring the establishing of an ingenious, creative and vivacious research culture at Pakistani Universities. <br><br></p> 2020-12-07T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 EFFECT OF TRAINING ON EMPLOYEE COMMITMENT: MEDIATING ROLE OF JOB SATISFACTION 2020-12-07T03:02:09-05:00 Saeed Muhammad Dr. Fahad Khan Afridi Mr. Waqas Ali Waheed Ullah Shah Dr. Imran Ibrahim Alasan <p>Training and relevant capacity is a prerequisite and vital condition for employees’ commitment in job. The current research paper primarily focuses to examine the impact of training on employee commitment and to analyze the mediating effect of job satisfaction on the association of these two variables. The objectives of the study are to find out the effect of training on job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Besides, the study also aims at assessing the mediating effect of job satisfaction between employee training and organizational commitment. The present research study applied a cross sectional and the data was collected from HR, production, procurement, marketing and finance departments of the different companies of Hayatabad Industrial estates. Those companies were listed and having 900 employees from lower, middle and top management. Data was collected through questionnaire from 200 respondents while the selection of respondents was made randomly. The overall response rate of the respondents was 76%. Smart PLS 3.3.2 version was used to test the mediation analysis. The finding revealed that training had a positive association with organizational commitment and job satisfaction while, job satisfaction partly mediated the association of training organizational commitment. It was recommended that a need based training program, associated with strategic plan should be adopted by the organizations. <br><br></p> 2020-12-06T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 THE ROLE OF CULTURAL SCHEMA IN STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION IN ESL CONTEXT 2020-12-07T09:31:07-05:00 <p>The present study is designed to investigate the role of cultural schema in ESL context at Higher Secondary level in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. It aims to investigate students’ comprehension of a short story The Blanket by Floyed Dellin their textbooks. The investigation is however exclusive of content and language schemata. To examine students’ reading comprehension qualitatively, this study uses the tool of ‘content familiarity questionnaire’ for primary data collection from a sample of 200 participants selected via convenient sampling technique. Analysis includes schemata identification of culturally unfamiliar context, norms, rituals and customs by the students while interpreting the selected lesson. Findings reveal a significant mismatch and misperception between students derived understanding and encoded text from less comprehension to the degree of total miscomprehension. It was found that students either wrongly identified the foreign culture phenomena with their own culture, or their constructed schemata neither match the target nor their cultural schema. Thus, the study stands beneficial to ESL students’ reading skill as it draws attention to the development of cultural schema and suggests means of improving students’ reading comprehension of such lessons in ESL context. <br>&nbsp;</p> 2020-12-07T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECT OF THE METACOGNITIVE SKILLS ON PUPIL TEACHERS’ TASK PERFORMANCE: A MIXED METHODS INQUIRY 2020-12-08T01:57:36-05:00 Muhammad Shahid Zulfiqar Ali Dr. Ghazal Khalid Siddiqui Dr. Ijaz Ahmad Tatlah <p>This Mixed Methods inquiry has been conducted to understand the effect of Metacognitive skills on Pupil teachers’ task performance. The Explanatory Design: Follow-up Explanation Model (QUAN emphasized) has been utilized for this study. At 1st, the quantitative data collection has been done in which the pupil teachers’ Metacognitive skills were measured by a Metacognitive Skills Assessment Tool developed by the researcher. The data was collected from 100 students including male and female as well. For this purpose, 4 sections of B.Ed. Honors students were selected by using Cluster sampling. After the measurement of the Metacognitive skills, the students were assessed regarding the written-assignment task with the help of the “Assessment Criteria for Report Writing” adopted from (Siddiqui, 2016). Whereas at 2nd, the qualitative data collection has been done in which the pupil teachers’ oral presentation task performance was assessed qualitatively through the semi- structured observation. For this purpose, there were 8 students, who were selected as a sample for qualitative data collection purposively. They were the representatives of those who got extreme scores on the Metacognitive performance test. It is concluded on the basis of the quantitative findings that the Pupil teachers Metacognitive skills have a positive moderate and significant effection on their written-assignment task performance. On the other hand, it is concluded on the basis of the qualitative result that those prospective teachers who scored high in the Metacognitive skills performance test, done their Oral Presentation task performance better than those who obtained low scores on the aforementioned test. <br>&nbsp;</p> 2020-12-08T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL STRATIFICATION ON PAKISTANI ENGLISH SPEAKERS APOLOGY RESPONSES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL APPROACH 2020-12-11T01:22:38-05:00 <p>This paper follows a phenomenology approach to investigate the influence of social stratification on Pakistani English speakers’ apology responses. Some researchers have played quite a significant role in advancing the field, but their data collection methods (discourse completion tests and role plays) have received much criticism. In order to address this issue, the current study followed the phenomenology approach and based its data collection procedure on focus group discussion. The data of the current study were collected through a focus group discussion questionnaire. Thematic analysis of qualitative data was carried out by following Braun and Clarke’s (2013) six steps. Major themes were coded, identified, and classified through Atlas.ti software. Findings indicate that participants stressed the significance of accepting others to keep healthy relations. Accepting apology was perceived not only as moral but also as aesthetic behavior that can beautify the moments of social interaction. Further, social position and power performed an important role to determine the techniques and function of responding to the apology in Pakistani English speakers’ responses. Interlocutors who were in a lower public position and power were found responding to apologies more pleasantly and politely than those who had a higher public position. In comparison, those who were in a high position responded to apologies in a different way to the addressees with a lower status. Thus, the contextual aspects such as social status, and the degree of imposition had a great part in producing apology responses as well as perceiving apology responses as conversation act behavior. The impact of social status on the Pakistanis English speakers’ efficiency was subject to a cultural filter that reveals various orders of values. <br><br></p> 2020-12-11T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 METICULOUS INQUEST OF INTERPLAY AMONG WORK ENGAGEMENT, EMOTIONAL EXHAUSTION AND TURNOVER INTENTIONS 2020-12-11T01:38:52-05:00 <p>Work engagement has produced a lot of enthusiasm and significance in the research fields predominantly in organization behavior and now a day’s generally utilized trend for organizational consultants’ particularly as sound confirmation indicates a productive and profitable source of employee engagement. Work engagement has been described as a particular and exceptional phenomenon that comprises of cognitions, emotional capability, and routine behavioral factors related with employee performances. Work engagement play an important role in organization and engaged workers regularly show a profound, positive passionate association with their duty and are probably going to show consideration and psychological retention in their tasks. Even though, engaged staff members are reliably more profitable, beneficial, more secure, more advantageous, and more reluctant and unenthusiastic to leave their organizations, worldwide just 30% of employees are assessed who remain engaged with their work. Regardless, in spite of proceeded with confirmation of linkages to affirmative business results, employee work engagement is decreasing. As the main objectives of this study is to find out the mediating role work engagement between emotional exhaustion and turnover intentions among the employees working in public sector universities. An attempt was made to construct a model which measured the mediating effects work engagement between emotional exhaustion and turnover intentions. A sample of (n=316) respondents was collected from the employees’ public sector universities working in Malakand division. Demographic variables and other relevant was analyzed through SPSS (22) and structure equation model SEM was used to find out the effects of work engagement as mediating variable was measured by AMOS. Work engagement was measured as mediating variable between emotional exhaustion and turnover intentions. Adopted and standard instruments of reputable consultants were used for each variable accordingly. The overall mediation process was measured according to Barron and Kenny (1986) four steps methodology. The indirect results shows that negative and significant relationships were exist among emotional exhaustion and work engagement and work engagement and significant but negative association between work engagements and employee turnover intentions. Generally, as clear from results that work engagement as a whole plays a partial mediating role between emotional exhaustion and turnover intentions supported by statistically and theoretically. <br><br></p> 2020-12-11T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 ‘TALK OF SUNLIGHT’: EXPLORING ECOFEMINISM THROUGH METAPHORS IN SELECTED POEMS OF DAUD KAMAL 2020-12-14T00:25:44-05:00 <p>The present study highlights the status of women and nature in Pakistani culture by exploring ecofeminism through metaphors in the selected poems of Daud Kamal. The study uses Karen Warren’s theory of ecofeminism asserting that women and the environment are inextricably associated. The plundering of one catastrophically affects the other and both continue to suffer. The qualitative method of study explores and evaluates the social standing of women and nature through ecofeminist lens with a particular focus on Pakistani patriarchal and culture stricken society leading to gender inequality. The study makes use of textual analysis to analyze the selected poems and is significant as it focuses on women and the environment as being marginalized. Females and ecology’s oppression at the hands of patriarchy is the root cause of several issues that push them into an abyss of forgetfulness thus leading to oppression of women in the name of culture, religion, social face-saving, sexuality and gender while the environment is degraded by exploiting natural resources for temporary gains. The metaphors used in the selected poems depict the subjugation of women and nature and analyze it in connection with ecofeminism. It concludes to illuminate that the relationship between ecofeminism and Pakistani women is very strong as it defines cultural norms where both are degraded and devalued due to their social status. Future studies can be conducted in terms of comparative analysis of Indian and Pakistani cultures with relation to ecofeminism. <br><br></p> 2020-12-14T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 SOCIOCULTURAL BARRIERS AND PROFESSIONAL GROWTH: ANALYSIS OF THE STATUS OF WOMEN IN RURAL AREAS OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN 2020-12-25T06:50:58-05:00 <p>Social cultural barriers create hurdles for females of rural areas in Punjab, Pakistan. Due to implementation of strong hold of elder male in home, they cannot nourish their abilities and professional growth. There is an inequality in gender equality between women and men in the different fields of life. They cannot enjoy their lives as compared to urban females. The aim of this study is to highlight the role of primary school teachers of public and private sectors and also available facilities in their schools and its effects on professional and mental growth. This is a quantitative study a revalidated questionnaire was used to collect data which covers 13 questions. Data was collected from female school teachers in different rural areas of Punjab, Pakistan from January 2020 to March 2020 and the sample size was of 60 respondents. The collected data was analyzed by descriptive statistics and from descriptive statistics, reliability test, and Independent sample T-Test using SPSS version 25.0. The study results show that different socio-culture factors affect the professional growth of the rural area female teachers. They seldom get chances for higher education, own business, participation in political activities and Co-curricular activities. Moreover, there is no rural community support, lack of facilities in school infrastructure, involvement of house hold activities, agricultural involvement, unawareness about their rights, unawareness of social networking, and transportation problems etc. All these factors create stress in the routine activities of females. Besides, appropriate rules and public awareness programs for females, awareness at rural areas should be encouraged for the professional growth of the rural area females. <br>&nbsp;</p> 2020-12-25T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 English Problematic Diphthongs for Pashto Speakers: An Acoustic Analysis 2021-01-23T06:57:38-05:00 Dr Ghani Rahman Dr Abdul Hamid Dr. Rooh Ul Amin Mr. Muzaffar Ali <p>Concerned with acoustic analysis of English diphthongs, the data for the present study were collected from undergraduate level Pashtun students of English and were analyzed through PRAAT software. The formants frequencies of F1 and F2 were calculated for these diphthongs pronounced by Pashto speakers at different possible positions of the word. The results show that except three which are, /ɔɪ/, /əʊ/ and /aʊ/,all English diphthongs were problematic for the Pashtun learners of English at undergraduate level. Amongthe problematic diphthongs, some were highly problematic and some were less problematic. Diphthongs such as /ɪə/, /eə/ and /aɪ/ were less problematic. On the other hand, the diphthongs /ʊə/ and /eɪ/ were found highly problematic for the students. The present study concludes that the English diphthongs should be taught with special focus on their pronunciation in English words, particularly, the problematic diphthongs. The study is has significance for English language teachers and learners and syllabus designer to know about English problematic diphthongs for second language learners. <br><br></p> 2021-01-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE UNDERSTANDING OF ANXIETY ABOUT MATHEMATICS LEARNING IN THE GRADUATING STUDENTS OF KARACHI 2020-12-14T08:45:16-05:00 <p>Appropriate learning of mathematics is considered to be a critical component for the development of a scientific society. Our curriculum of mathematics courses are well developed and comparable to the curriculum of any other recognized and good university but still the graduating students lack the ability of mathematical understanding. Out of many reasons for the inability of mathematics learning, anxiety has been a neglected topic. The rationale of this research is to dig out the presence of anxiety factors among our students so that in future they can be targeted and confronted properly. For this purpose, a survey based research was conducted for quantitatively finding the mathematics anxiety among the graduating Pakistani students. A sample of 360 students from Electronic Engineering, Business and Media Sciences were taken and data was evaluated using principal component analysis and regression statistics. The research instrument was a questionnaire that was specifically developed for this purpose. Results revealed that two factors are predominantly contributing towards mathematics anxiety in Pakistan ;(1) inability of students to correlate mathematics with practical life and (2) the student's emotional instability towards the subject. These factors successfully explained the total proportion of 54.24%of anxiety for mathematics in the sample. Our qualitative study also showed that remaining can be attributed to the lack of digital tools, boring teaching style, untrusting assessment criteria and non-existence of student’s psychological counselling. This article concludes with recommendations for developing effective mathematics learning progressing towards a scientific society in Pakistan and in similar demographics of South Asia. <br><br></p> 2020-12-14T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 A COMPARISON OF MATHEMATICS AND FIRST LANGUAGE SKILLS AS CONCURRENT PREDICTORS OF SECOND LANGUAGE SKILLS IN BOYS AND GIRLS: A TEST-BASED STUDY 2020-12-12T08:27:54-05:00 <p>Language skills and mathematical skills make use of the same sub-skills, and the same areas in the brain for their processing and a comparable psychological development. Mathematics skills are also reported to strongly correlate with language skills, and to depend on language skills for their processing. Therefore, there might be a robust possibility that these skills would be contemporary predictors of one another and a strong correlation could be expected among them. To investigate this hypothesis, scores of around 11 years 100boys and 100 girls in the subjects of English, Urdu, and mathematics were collected. They (boys and girls) belonged to the rural suburbs of a district in the South Punjab, Pakistan. They secured these scores in the grade 5 examinations conducted under Punjab Education Commission (PEC). The data was analyzed by applying a Pearson’s correlation analysis, a hierarchical regression analysis, and later on, a factor analysis to find the relationship among the said skills. The statistical analyses revealed the presence of a strong correlation among second language (L2), first language (L1), and mathematical skills. Comparison with a previous study showed that this relationship was stronger in boys than girls. <br><br></p> 2020-12-12T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 SOCIAL MEDIA AND POLITICAL ACTIVISM AMONG YOUTH 2020-12-16T00:26:35-05:00 Irum Arshad <p>Social media allows people to interact with each other across the globe. With the advancement in technology, social media has become an important for communication. This research paper analyzes how social media has changed the political landscape in mobilizing youth and creating political awareness among youth. In this advance era of technology almost everyone has an access to the social networking sites. This research intends to know does political participation over social media occurs with substantially more frequency than the traditional media. This research investigates how news ingestion patterns have been changed among youth. Survey method was opted for collecting data from university students. The research concludes that there is a positive relationship between social media and political awareness but social media doesn’t contribute to political mobilization or political activism among youth. The research highlights that youth considers social media an important tool for sharing their views so in this way they can ensure their participation. But it doesn’t always contribute towards political activism. <br><br></p> 2020-12-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 THE REPERCUSSIONS OF COVID-19 ON HUMAN RIGHTS: RESPONSE AND CHALLENGES IN PAKISTAN 2020-12-22T00:46:07-05:00 <p>This paper elucidates the relevance of health care system and human rights challenges with reference to Covid-19 Pandemic. It spotlights the therapeutic development and significance of joint co-operation among the comity of Nations and there is a dire need to adopt human rights based approach to curb the crisis, because the COVID-19 does not discriminate between developed and underdeveloped states, rich and the poor, but its impacts do. This paper reflects that Covid-19 has caused serious damage to rule of law and human rights in the globalized world, Resultantly, the people in developing world slipped down under the poverty line during the Pandemic, and the world economy collapsed. In this context, Pakistan has promulgated lockdown, smart lockdown and micro lockdowns in order to save the lives of people and has announced the economic relief package of one billion US dollar($), and introduced a strategic Action Plan to cope with the challenge of COVID- 19. Moreover, the Honorable Supreme Court of Pakistan in a suo-moto case (2020) directed the Government to alleviate the miseries of masses through effective governance, financial support, quarantine facilities, restrictive measures and necessary supply of health safety equipments on priority basis.&nbsp;</p> 2020-12-22T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF DISTRICT MALAKAND, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN (2016-17) 2020-12-27T06:32:58-05:00 <p>The present paper deals with the results of fresh archaeological exploration carried out in the Malakand district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan, with the objectives to document the cultural heritage sites and monuments of archaeological and historical importance. Behind the objective, the core question needs to be addressed, what is the archaeological importance of present-day district Malakand? During the survey, some new archaeological sites dated from pre- Buddhist to the Buddhist, Hindu Shahi and Islamic periods were brought to light. An attempt is therefore made here to highlight the endangered archaeological assets of Malakand district to draw the attention of the concerned authorities for their proper acquisition, maintenance and conservation. <br><br></p> 2020-12-27T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 EMIGRATION AND THE WELFARE OF THE ABANDONED CHILDREN: A CASE STUDY OF DISTRICT PESHAWAR, KP, PAKISTAN 2020-12-28T00:42:46-05:00 <p>This study was conducted to appraise and gauge the influence of fathers’ emigration on the welfare of the abandoned children in district Peshawar, KP, Pakistan. Quantitative research method was used for the current study. Twenty-one Private Schools in Peshawar Cantonment, Pakistan, were used for data collection. The study population for the current research was the students of 9th and 10th. Through simple random sampling technique, a sample of 221 students was taken. The data was collected on the basis of simple random sampling using a questionnaire. For the analysis of data, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) computer program was used. The collected data was analyzed under the theoretical framework of “Emotional Attachment Theory” and “Family System Theory” presented by John Bowlby (1969) and Dr. Murray Bowen (1950) respectively. The findings of the study infer that emigration has both pros and cons for the left-behind children. Physically and materially these children were positively affected, whereas, socially and mentally they were adversely affected. In the light of the findings, the researcher recommends that the emigrant fathers should have maximum telephonic contact with their children, the government should arrange saving systems for the families of the immigrants ensuring the moderate-cum-just utilization of the remittances, every educational institution should arrange caring and counseling services for the children whose parents are abroad, the guardians of the children whose parents are abroad should look after them and persuade them for sports and exercise which, in turn, will ensue psychological and physical fitness. These families should retain in highly developed umbworld ensuring the socialization and safety of their children, the government should devise inclusive strategies to stop the brain drain of skilled labors, and the government should devise inclusive economic policies spending on the social sector to alleviate poverty. <br><br></p> 2020-12-28T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 INFLUENTIAL MEDIA IN SUMMER SEASONAL DISEASES: A CASE STUDY OF BUNER 2020-12-20T10:34:47-05:00 <p>Communication mechanism is the way people are educated so it becomes more effective if it suits the audience. The present study addresses the issue in communication about awareness in summer seasonal diseases and to find out the most effective sources of information in summer seasonal diseases in District Buner. The study is quantitative in nature and data has been collected using a questionnaire from 500 respondents. Respondents were asked different questions regarding their demographic status, knowledge about seasonal diseases and the effective sources of information. The results disclosed that majority of the population of the area have a very limited monthly income and low literacy rate. The seasonal diseases like Malaria, Dengue, Typhoid, Skin and Asthma are very common in summer and winter. The study was also aimed to find the places where respondents can get appropriate awareness about seasonal diseases, use of precautionary measures, and importance of the government in seasonal diseases and to measure the behavioural change in respondents after the campaigns. It has been found that social media and friends &amp;amp; relatives were effective sources of information for summer in district Buner. The study concludes that government should focus on outdoor, social media and peers for the awareness and information for the people instead of mainstream media to create awareness among the masses and to cope with seasonal diseases as the results of cross tabulations and correlations tested revealed. Since the universe of the study was district Buner, therefore it is also a recommendation for the policy makers and researchers to conduct such studies in other parts of the province and country as well. <br><br></p> 2020-12-19T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020