Pakistan Journal of Society, Education and Language (PJSEL) <p><strong><em>Notice: </em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>This to inform all the worthy researchers that the editorial team of PJSEL is in process of uploading the accepted papers for Volume 7 (2) July,2021. </em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>New Submissions will be considered for review process after 20th July 2021 for Volume 8 issue 1, and if there is any inconvenience, the editor of the journal may be contacted via email. </em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>From Editorial Board PJSEL.</em></strong></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p><a href=";id=503537#journal_result"><strong>PJSEL is HEC Recognised Y category journal.</strong></a></p> <p>PJSEL is multi-disciplinary journal following a double-blind peer-reviewed policy and the journal freely available online as well as in print form. The aim of the PJSEL is to publish articles that contribute significantly to the body of knowledge. It publishes both theoretical and empirical articles and case studies relating to social sciences (sociology, anthropology, psychology, political sciences etc), education and English language and literature. Preference is given to contributions based on empirical research. However, book reviews and theoretical papers of immense importance / relevance for social scientists, educationists and linguists are also published.</p> <p><strong>PJSEL</strong> is published in English twice a year. This academic and scholarly peer reviewed journal is available both online and in print.<br />PJSEL hopes that researchers, research scholars, academicians, scientists and policy makers would benefit from the published research for the development of society, education and language studies.</p> <p><strong>PJSEL</strong> welcomes high quality papers in the fields of Social Sciences, Education, Language and Linguistics. Manuscripts submitted are reviewed and published once accepted for publication. All the manuscripts submitted for publication are initially reviewed to ensure they are original, relevant and readable. <strong>PJSEL</strong> encourages online submission. In case of justified reasons, manuscripts can also be addressed to <a href=""><strong></strong></a></p> <p><img src="blob:" alt="Licensing and Citation – Teaching With Rich Media" /></p> <p> </p> JEHAN FOUNDATION en-US Pakistan Journal of Society, Education and Language (PJSEL) 2521-8123 <p><strong>PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF SOCIETY, EDUCATION AND LANGUAGE (PJSEL)</strong><strong>Abbreviated KEY Title: Pak. j. soc. educ. lang. (Online) </strong><strong>URL: <a href=""> </a></strong><strong>ISSN 2523-1227 (Online), ISSN 2521-8123 (Print</strong></p> <p><strong>Editor’s Email: <a href=""> </a></strong><strong>Nature of Publication: OPEN ACCESS. </strong><strong>Copyright: Copyright (c) 2015-2018 </strong></p> <p><strong>LICENSED BY: THE WORK OF PJSEL IS LICENSED UNDER CREATIVE COMMON ATTRIBUTION 4.0 INTERNATIONAL </strong></p> THE IDEA OF FEMALE MUEZZINS AND IMAMS IN ISLAM: A CHALLENGE TO THE PAKISTANI PATRIARCHAL FORCES <p>This research article explores the dynamics of discrimination faced by Pakistani Muslim women in contemporary history regarding the issue of legitimacy of female imams and muezzins. Although there are no authoritative statements affirming that women cannot become imams within the religious scripture of Islam, women from Muslim communities around the world in general and from Pakistan in particular suffer under patriarchal structures and dynamics. This makes it difficult for women to assume imam and/or muezzin positions, as they are often ignored and denied basic opportunities to practice their religious rights such as offering prayers in the mosque. A transformative theoretical underpinning structures and constructs an understanding of the situation, with the help of scholarly interpretations within the framework of modern-day social interactions. <br><br></p> Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-26 2021-06-26 7 2 1 9 MEN, WOMEN, AND PATRIARCHY: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF ‘HONOUR’ BY ELIFSHAFAK <p>This research paper deals with the issue of how women have been subjugated by the male members of society besides the law and values assert the equality of humankind. It also demonstrates the suffering of female characters in a patriarchal society. This study focuses on the social structures in which women are dominated, exploited, oppressed, and given secondary status. In a patriarchal society, women are supposed to be controlled by male members although they participate equally in the field of development. Patriarchal societies are present everywhere not only in Turkey or England. The purpose of this study is to highlight the social relations between male and female members of the society by applying the six postulates of patriarchy proposed by Sylvia Walby (1989). Analytical and qualitative research has been carried out. The results and the findings of the research show that in a patriarchal society women are given secondary status and they are sub-ordinated due to their proposed inferior sex by male individuals. <br><br></p> Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-26 2021-06-26 7 2 10 21 ESSENTIALIST BORDERLANDS, MONOLITHIC OTHERING AND MIGRATED LOCALES: ANALYSIS OF H. M. NAQVI’S HOME BOY <p>Borders in the globalized world are the converging points of not only the globalizing forces of security, trade and migration but also the related conflicting identities, ideologies and civilizations. Just like its spatial connotations that relate to territorial zones, borderlands can also mean phenomena that create psychological borders by means by the enactment of social policy, and ideology. In that case, people of either sides of the border may struggle with the question of identity. Using the psychological borders-related theoretical underpinnings, provided by Gloria Anzaldua, the current study attempts to trace the contribution of border-crossing and globalization in the treatment of such people by the host societies, as depicted in H. M. Naqvi’s novel Home Boy. Since physical as well as psychological borders are created for the security of a nation, the outsiders are often thought of as a threat to the security of that very nation. The study finds that the host societies question the identities and cultures of these people in the name of the so-called human welfare and security.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-26 2021-06-26 7 2 22 35 ORPHANS’ SATISFACTION WITH EDUCATION AND DEVELOPING SKILLS TRAINING IN THE SELECTED ORPHANAGES OF KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN <p>Man-made and natural disasters have made more than 4.2 million orphans in Pakistan. In which a fraction has been placed into different state-run orphanages in order to protect them from further exploitation. The objective of the study is to know about the satisfactory level of the inmates with education and developing skills training in the selected orphanages of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Five government-run orphanages i.e. Welfare Home Charsadda, Welfare Home Kohat, Welfare Home Abbottabad, Sweet Home Swat, and Sweet Home Peshawar were selected from four zones in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The data has been collected from190 of the inmates through census method. Survey questionnaire (Child Status Index) and non-participant observation method was used to collect data. The Alderfer’ ERG theory has been used in order to understand the relevancy of findings with the frustration-regression relationship as suggested by Aldefer. The results suggest that virtually all the inmates were enrolled in schools and training programs, nevertheless, a significant majority were having learning disability and issues in developing life skills. The residential staff of all the orphanages was also found to be untrained and professionally incompetent. The study recommends the induction of well-trained and competent residential staff in all the orphanages and above all, the placement of the orphans into orphanages as a last resort. <br><br></p> Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-27 2021-06-27 7 2 36 45 PSYCHO-SOCIAL EFFECTS OF PARENTAL INCARCERATION ON CHILDREN WELL-BEING IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN <p>&nbsp;This study quantitatively examined socio-economic and psychological effects of parental incarceration on children personalities at District Mardan. For collection of the relevant information, 150 respondents were purposively selected through simple random sampling method and then the data was collected through structured interview schedule. Univariate and bivariate levels of analysis were carried out with the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Chi-Square test statistics was applied. The study concluded a significant association (P=≥0.05) between the effects of parental incarceration on children personalities with the statements such as increasing feelings of tension and anxiety, violent and aggressive attitudes, honour damaging, defective socialization, child labour, weak academic performance, increasing drop out ratio from educational institutions, less involvement in the co-curricular activities and weak presentation/communication skills of children. Initiation of various programs that solve different issues faced by children such as psychological, financial and educational needs of the children with incarcerated parents, provision of free of cost health, educational and legal support to the children with incarcerated parents, regular contact of children with their parents in prisons, and awareness raising programs at community level that could mitigate the concept of shame and stigma attached with parental incarceration were presented some of the policy recommendation in light of the study results. <br>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 7 2 46 56 PERCEIVED PARENTAL CONDITIONAL REGARD AND AUTONOMY SUPPORT PARENTING AS PREDICTORS OF SELF-REGULATORY PROCESS AMONG ADOLESCENTS <p><br>Adolescence is a crucial period that radically affects individuals’ functioning in certain domains. Adolescence and significant parental, interpersonal, societal, and academic issue are the centre of ongoing research but still, there is a need to explore the adolescent phase within various contexts and domains. The present study was planned to find out Perceived Parental Conditional Regard (PCR)and Autonomy Support Parenting (ASP) as predictors of Self-Regulatory processes (internalization &amp; identification) among purposively selected 450 adolescents with an age range of 15 -21 years (M = 19.55, SD = 1.69) through a cross-sectional survey research design. Domain-specific Parental Conditional Regard (DSPCR: Assor et al., 2004), Domain-specific Perceptions of Autonomy Support Parenting Scale (Bashir &amp; Malik, 2020), Internal Compulsion Scale (ICS: Deci &amp; Ryan, 1985), Choice Scale (Deci &amp; Ryan, 1985), were used to collect data. Pearson product movement correlation analysis demonstrates PCR has a positive correlation with Internalisation but a negative correlation with identification; ASR has a positive correlation with identification and a negative correlation with internalization. Regression analysis revealed that parental conditional regard predicted internalization in pro-social and academic domains; whereas, autonomy support parenting predicted identification in pro-social, academic and emotion control domains among adolescents. <br>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 7 2 57 70 LANGUAGE SHIFT AND MAINTENANCE: THE CASE STUDY OF HINDKO COMMUNITY IN PESHAWAR, PAKISTAN <p>The current position paper examines the linguistic scenario of Hindko (the second major language after Pashto in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province) in Peshawar and the social mechanism which poses a challenge to the sustainability of Hindko on a broader scale. It deals with language attitude and language shift from Hindko to other languages due to social, economic and political factors. This study uses a quantitative research approach since the primary data source came from the survey conducted through a questionnaire. A 23 item questionnaire was administered to 75 participants using the strategy of stratified random sampling to collect data on language use, its choice and attitude towards it. The age limit was specified into two groups, i.e. 16-25 and 26-40, and the number of participants from both the groups consisted of 40 and 35, respectively. The rationale behind the age limit specification was to observe the trend of language shift between different age groups by comparison and contrast. The study results show that a considerable number of young participants tend to shift from Hindko to other dominant languages in the community due to social mobility issues <br>&nbsp;L</p> Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 7 2 71 84 PERCEPTIONS OF HEAD TEACHERS REGARDING STUDENTS’ DISORDERLY BEHAVIOR IN CLASSROOM AT SECONDARY LEVELS <p>Disorderly behavior is accelerating day by day and is increasing with passage of time. Its causes are nourishing in the shape of unwanted results like inadequate skills power and inadequate behavior formation. Public and Private schools are affected with this problem. The study was descriptive in nature. The Population of the study was based on the Public and Private Secondary School female and male teachers, heads and students of District D.I.Khan, Lakki Marwat, &amp; Karak (Zone-IV of KP).Out of (N=304) respondents, (n=230) respondents, 230 head teachers (132 males and 98 females were taken as sample of the study by applying multistage sampling techniques through Kerjcie and Morgan (1970) formula. Data was accumulated via quantitymethod through self- developed questionnaire of 5-Points Likert scale. The key purpose of the study was to know the perceptions of head teachers regarding students’ disorderly behavior in classroom at secondary levels in district D.I.Khan, Lakki Marwat, and Karak. The study was delimitated merely head teachers of both genders (males and females) at Secondary level in Southern districts of KP (D.I.Khan, Lakki Marwat, and Karak). Results and conclusions were drawn in the study and recommendations were given at the end for further improvement in the study. <br><br></p> Muhammad Ihsan Dr. Malik Amer Atta Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 7 2 94 102 IF I DON’T EXIST: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF WORKPLACE OSTRACISM AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRES <p>In this study we examined the mediating role of interpersonal deviance and moderating effects of ingratiation between workplace ostracism and psychological distress, based on transactional theory of stress and coping. Cross sectional survey design was used and data was collected from 202 academicians from all universities of Quetta. Workplace ostracism threatens employee’s interpersonal needs and self-efficacy. Employees try to cope with this approach and avoid indulging in psychological distress, through influence behavior ingratiation. This relationship was investigated by applying Hays PROCESS and used SPSS to analyze direct and indirect effects of moderated mediation model. Our results shows that workplace ostracism interpersonal deviance and ingratiation contributes to the prevalence of psychological distress and offer direct and collateral appliance. One path involves actions that dispirit ostracism by influential behavior, another step measures related to interpersonal deviance anticipated by mentoring and employee’s support plans. The current research clarifies the underlying influential, intellectual and emotive mechanism between workplace ostracism and psychological distress. It extends research on interpersonal deviance and ingratiation to explain its theoretic as well as experiential effects on psychological distress. It additionally demonstrates how employees adopt ingratiation to turn down negative outcomes of workplace ostracism. Lastly, it explains the whole mechanism in context of collectivistic philosophy of Pakistan. <br><br></p> Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 7 2 85 93 THE ROLE OF MEDIA IN SHAPING NARRATIVES ON THE INDIA-PAKISTAN WAR OF 1971 <p>In the 1971 war between India and Pakistan, the latter was defeated not only politically and militarily but also in the media, which ultimately led to the creation of Bangladesh. This study examined the role of national and international media in shaping the nature of conflict. The study used qualitative research method of document analysis to understand the role of media in the conflict. The study concludes that Pakistan's policy of expelling international media from East Pakistan and censoring of West Pakistan's media resulted in a vague depiction of the ground realities. Pakistan's tacit defensiveness and confusion in explaining the military operations put it at political disadvantage both internally and externally. Contrarily, India welcomed the exiled international media and offered place to work. India manipulated Mukti Bahini as well as the national media in its propaganda campaign against Pakistan to achieve the desired strategic goals. Bengali nationalists, with the Indian assistance, used media as a tool to spread propaganda against the Pakistani leadership and its armed forces. The study argues that the unsubstantiated media sensation about military operations in East Pakistan was story-driven, and it selectively targeted the Pakistani army ignoring the atrocities committed by the Bengali nationalists with Indian backing.</p> Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 7 2 103 113 PERCEPTIONAL DIFFERENCES TOWARDS JARGA SYSTEM AMONG DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS: A QUANTITATIVE APPROACH <p>Pakistan is a multi-ethnic, multilingual, and culturally diversified country where different mechanisms of dispute resolutions are in practice. These different ethnic groups have systems of conflict resolutions parallel with formal mechanisms of justice like that of Panchayat, Jarga,and Faisalu. The purpose of the current study was to examine differences and similarities in perception towards the jarga system as a mechanism of conflict resolution, across different age groups. A quantitative survey technique was adopted for the present study. Data was collected through a questionnaire from a sample of 270 respondents in different union councils of tehsil Katlang, District Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The sampling strategy for the study was multi-staged-cluster sampling, where clusters of union councils and different age groups were made. Sample for different age groups was drawn from the population through a proportionate sampling technique. Results of the study show an overall positive perception of the Jarga system in nearly all the age groups. A majority, 80% of the respondents consider the jarga system as an effective mechanism of conflict prevention and resolution. However, our results of the independent sample T-test show statistically significant variations in perception towards the state court system across different age groups. The study findings are mostly in contrast to the contemporary literature on the subject and are therefore an important contribution to the sociological debate regarding different dispute resolution systems within the Pakistani society. <br>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 7 2 114 124 ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE AND WORK ENGAGEMENT: STUDY OF PUBLIC SECTOR NURSING SERVICES OF PAKISTAN <p>Work engagement, both at the individual and team levels, is relevant to understand employee performance and well-being. The aim of this study is to examine the association between work engagement and organizational justice while observing the moderating role of psychological empowerment in public health sector nurses. An analytical cross sectional study design was used to get data from 350 nurses of different hospitals and institutes through convenience sampling technique. Self- administered questionnaires of variables Work Engagement (UE) and organizational justice (OJ) on likert scale were used to collect data. The results of data reveal that all three elements of OJ that is distributive justice, procedural justice and interactional justice are positively associated with WE in work place.&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 7 2 125 144 CAUSES AND IMPACT OF GENDER DISCRIMINATION ON WOMEN’S DEVELOPMENT <p>Gender discrimination is a sensitive and critical issue all over the world. Every woman experiences gender discrimination in her life whether it is a modern or a developing society. In developing countries like Pakistan gender discrimination is more deep rooted in both rural and urban societies. The aim of this study is to find out the causes and impact of gender discrimination against woman in Quetta city. A quantitative research method was used to achieve the objectives of this study. A mixed sample of literate and illiterate, male and female respondents was selected at random and data was collected through questionnaires distributed among the literate groups while the illiterate group was interviewed. The data of this study shows that women face gender discrimination in their entire life. The low education level, cultural pressure, poor socio-economic conditions, religious influence and societal trends and different social behaviors against women are the main causes of gender discrimination. The illiterate group had more favored the gender discrimination. Majority of the respondents want change to end this kind of societal behavior. <br><br></p> Rukhshanda Zarar Prof. Dr. Naheed Abrar Dr. Ayesha Gul Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-03 2021-07-03 7 2 145 154 WORKPLACE HARASSMENT: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF NURSES IN HAZARA <p>The present research was conducted to find out the rate of sexual harassment among nurses, their experiences of harassment, and the difference between the frequency of harassment of nurses working under aged authority and the other working under young bosses at health sector. Both qualitative and quantitative measures are used to fulfill these objectives. One hundred nurses with the age range of 20- 40 who were serving in different private and government hospitals of Abbottabad and Mansehra participated in the study. They were further categorized into two categories, 50 working under aged boss (above age 40) and 50 working under young boss (below age 40). Sexual harassment experience questionnaire (SHEQ) was used to measure the frequency of sexual harassment while open-ended in- depth interviews were conducted to collect the experiences, perception of work environment, techniques, domains and causes of sexual harassment. The data collected through SHEQ was analyzed by using the SPSS, frequency distribution, and measures of central tendency was calculated. While thematic analysis was used to analyze the in-depth interview material. The results show that 70% nurses at health sector face sexual harassment. Moreover, it was shown that nurses working under aged boss experience harassment more frequently as compared to the nurses who are working under young boss. In depth interviews revealed that there are many types of harassment used by seniors to harass nurses at health sector. Moreover, rate of sexual harassment is more in young, unmarried, divorced, and widows as compared to married women. The common causes of harassment that are told by most of the participants are undue favors and promotions given to subordinates, nurses’ intentional involvement in harassment, poverty, etc. <br><br></p> Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-03 2021-07-03 7 2 155 163 ANALYSIS OF COUNSELING AT WORKPLACE: A STUDY ON SAMPLE OF UNIVERSITY <p>In today’s unstable economy, insecurity becomes the main problem for employees. Workplace counseling is providing a brief mental therapy for employees in any organization, especially Pakistan counseling service has not received sufficient consideration in most organizations. The reason for this is not isolated from the low level of response to counseling services, usually in the country. In this study, the focus group method was used. Fourteen staff members from the University of Swat, KP-Pakistan were selected for the sample of the study. The main aim of this study is to make a base for advance qualitative studies by determining the viewpoints of employees towards counseling at the workplace. The current study highlights the importance, concept of workplace counseling and provides advanced quantitative studies by determining the viewpoints of staff of university towards counseling at work different programs. Diverse types of programs are discussed in this paper and are discussed that employees might advantage from presenting such programs. Employees Assistance Programs are used in this study, which is job-related job relate programs designed to assist and identify worried personnel. <br><br></p> Maaz Ud Din Dr. Faisal Khan Usman Khan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-06 2021-07-06 7 2 164 171 EFFECT OF MULTI-GRADE TEACHING ON STUDENTS’ COGNITIVE ABILITIES IN MULTI-GRADE LITERACY CENTERS OF PUNJAB <p>It was a quantitative study for the dissertation of Ph. D. The aim of the study was to explore the effects of multi-grade teaching on the cognitive abilities of students of literacy centers of Punjab. All the students of grade V studying in literacy centers and formal public schools of the Punjab were population of the study. The researchers took the sample from all the students of grade V of literacy centers of Rawalpindi and equal number of their counterparts from formal schools of Rawalpindi. The collected data were analyzed by using t-tests, means and standard deviation with the help of SPSS. The results showed that multi-grade teaching system had no adverse impact on the cognitive abilities of literacy centers of Punjab. Compared with the per student expenditure of the Punjab government on the education of formal students and literacy learners, the study showed that much of national capital can be saved through multi-grade teaching system, with no negative impact on the cognitive abilities of students. <br><br></p> Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-26 2021-06-26 7 2 172 181 BODY ESTEEM AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AMONG CANCER PATIENTS: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF RESILIENCE <p>The current study focused on Body esteem and psychological distress in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy or chemotherapy; the mediating role of resilience. A convenient sample of 200 cancer patients who were currently undergoing the sessions of radiotherapy/ chemotherapy, were tested. Data collection form was consisted on consent form, demographic information Performa to scrutinize the essentials about cancer patients under treatment, the scale of body esteem (urdu version), kessler’s psychological distress scale (urdu version), resilience scale (urdu version). The data was thus obtained through statistical analysis of SPSS. To acquire the basis and essential information about collected data descriptive statistics was applied. Correlation was calculated among study variables. Mediation analysis was done for the effect of body esteem and resilience on psychological distress. Findings expounded that resilience was significantly negative but partially a mediator between body esteem and psychological distress. Body esteem was found direct and in-direct predictor of psychological distress. <br><br></p> Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-11 2021-07-11 7 2 182 189 INFORMATIONAL POWER AND ITS EFFECTS ON A STUDENT’S PERSONALITY AND PERFORMANCE: ACQUIRED THROUGH AUTODIDACTISM AND TECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS <p>This paper investigates the acquiring of informational power through autodidactism by using technological applications and their effects on students’ personality and performance. Informational power denotes the amount of access an individual has to the resources, possession of information in the form of knowledge, and how information is communicated and expressed effectively to others. Autodidacticism is the process of self-education or self-learning that takes place without the supervision of mentors like professors and teachers or institutions like a school, college, and university. Personality is a set of traits and is studied by considering various aspects like emotions, behaviour, and genetics of a person. The bases of power model by French and Raven was used as a theoretical framework for the study. Using purposive sampling technique, data was collected from sixteen students of BS Computer Engineering, Software Engineering, Maths, and English from a public sector university constitute the population of the study. The data were collected through one-on-one interview from the respondents. The data was analyzed qualitatively which involved steps of coding, categorizing, and theme creating from the transcribed interviews. The findings of the study were divided into two parts: in the first part, access to the sources of informational power was discussed and in the second part effects of informational power on a student’s personality and performance were discussed. The findings of the study reveal that students can acquire informational power through autodidactism by using various technological applications which were divided into five main categories based on similarity in sub-categories. Moreover, it was also concluded that informational power acquired through autodidactism by using technological applications affects a student’s personality and performance both positively and negatively. <br><br></p> Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-26 2021-06-26 7 2 190 200 MARGINALIZATION STRATEGIES IN ARUNDHATI ROY’S THE MINISTRY OF UTMOST HAPPINESS <p>The present study investigates marginalization strategies in The Ministry of Utmost Happiness (2017) by Arundhati Roy. The selected text was analyzed in light of the postcolonial theory, foregrounding a background of the colonized state of the subaltern class in India. The subaltern studies historiography identifies the ruling elites of India as bearers of the legacy of British colonizers. Like the colonizers, these elites have ruined the lives of the subaltern class and as a result the subaltern groups have no access to power and their voices have never been heard in the political and social arenas. Roy presents the case of the most marginalized people of India i.e. minorities, Dalits, transgenders and those who live in the slums. Indian politicians, local elites and patriarchs have been marginalizing them through various strategies. Their lands are confiscated and no alternative measures are taken for the displaced and dispossessed people. They try to record their protests but their voices are silenced through military, police and militant organizations. Similarly, bloodbath in Kashmir has engulfed its people in a war-torn colony. They are still living in a colonial era because Indian military and militant organizations are using in-depth strategies to suppress their voices. State is deliberately pushing them towards insurgency and then through counter- insurgency they are killed, their women are raped and their youngsters are declared as militants. The Indian politicians back up militant groups and take political precedence through violence and anarchy. They deliberately declare India as a security state for the benefits of the few for which the subaltern class is always presented as a threat to the state. The protagonist of the novel is a hermaphrodite, who is also marginalized by society through patriarchal values and political injustices but her generosity and compassion towards marginalized people is a slap on the faces of Indian authorities. Roy’s advocacy of the subaltern class has unveiled the abominable faces of Indian politicians. She has keenly observed different incidents in the recent history of India. <br>&nbsp;</p> Fayaz Khan Dr. Abdul Hamid Dr. Ghani Rahman Shahida Khalique Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 7 2 201 210 STRANGERS IN PARADISE: THE CASE OF WORKING-CLASS STUDENTS IN ELITE UNIVERSITIES OF PAKISTAN <p>This research paper discusses working-class students’ experiences in the elite universities of Pakistan. The main objective of the research was to examine the inclusion and exclusion strategies of elite universities for working-class students. The research was guided by a qualitative research design. The locale of the study consisted of four elite universities (two from Islamabad-the federal capital of Pakistan- and two from Lahore- the provincial capital of Punjab province of Pakistan). Sixty-four respondents (working-class students) were included in the study through a consecutive sampling technique. The data for the study come from in-depth qualitative interviews using a semi-structured interview guide. Theoretically, the study is informed by Pierre Bourdieu’s, Basil Bernstein’s, and Jerome Karabel’s work. The results of the study showed that working-class students had relatively diverse kinds of experiences in the elite universities of Pakistan. It was found that working-class students were facing symbolic violence in the universities through various explicit and implicit ways. They were segregated through different structural procedures of the elite universities such as fees and other related expenses.The study concludes that working-class students were experiencing inside and outside classroom differential treatment. The social class background was an important factor that was playing a key role for some to be considered as special and others as non-special individuals in educational institutions where the respondents were studying. The study suggests that elitism in the education system of Pakistan must be discouraged to have assimilated kind of environment in the Pakistani education system. <br><br></p> Asim Muneeb Khan Dr. Hazir Ullah Latafat Aziz Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-12 2021-07-12 7 2 211 221 DIALOGICAL EDUCATION AND CURRICULUM IN PAKISTAN: ISSUES AND PROSPECTS <p>In Pakistan, a center-periphery approach is followed in the process of curriculum development in which the curriculum developers stress following the guidelines and objectives formulated by the bureaucrats at the central/ provincial levels. In this way, the teachers play a little role in the process of curriculum development instead they are instructed to teach the books and complete the syllabus. Dialogical education allows to provides a positive and dynamic contribution to students in the building of collective knowledge. Here a form of dialogue is adopted and students get an opportunity to discuss and build shared knowledge. This study aims to explore dimensions of dialogical education and to investigate key issues in implementing dialogical education in the country. It recommends that the problems of society like poverty, law and order situation, illiteracy, impatience, and unstable democracy can be better understood if a system of dialogical education is followed. <br><br></p> Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-22 2021-07-22 7 2 222 229