Pakistan Journal of Society, Education and Language (PJSEL) https://pjsel.jehanf.com/index.php/journal <p>PJSEL is multi-disciplinary journal following a double-blind peer-reviewed policy and the journal freely available online as well as in print form. The aim of the PJSEL is to publish articles that contribute significantly to the body of knowledge. It publishes both theoretical and empirical articles and case studies relating to social sciences (sociology, anthropology, psychology, political sciences etc), education and English language and literature. Preference is given to contributions based on empirical research. However, book reviews and theoretical papers of immense importance / relevance for social scientists, educationists and linguists are also published.</p> <p><strong>PJSEL</strong> is published in English twice a year. This academic and scholarly peer reviewed journal is available both online and in print.<br />PJSEL hopes that researchers, research scholars, academicians, scientists and policy makers would benefit from the published research for the development of society, education and language studies.</p> <p><strong>PJSEL</strong> welcomes high quality papers in the fields of Social Sciences, Education, Language and Linguistics. Manuscripts submitted are reviewed and published once accepted for publication. All the manuscripts submitted for publication are initially reviewed to ensure they are original, relevant and readable. <strong>PJSEL</strong> encourages online submission. In case of justified reasons, manuscripts can also be addressed to <a href="mailto:editorpjsel@gmail.com"><strong>editorpjsel@gmail.com</strong></a></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> JEHAN FOUNDATION en-US Pakistan Journal of Society, Education and Language (PJSEL) 2521-8123 <p><strong>PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF SOCIETY, EDUCATION AND LANGUAGE (PJSEL)</strong><strong>Abbreviated KEY Title: Pak. j. soc. educ. lang. (Online) </strong><strong>URL: <a href="http://pjsel.jehanf.com/archives.php">http://pjsel.jehanf.com/archives.php </a></strong><strong>ISSN 2523-1227 (Online), ISSN 2521-8123 (Print</strong></p> <p><strong>Editor’s Email: <a href="mailto:editorpjsel@gmail.com">editorpjsel@gmail.com </a></strong><strong>Nature of Publication: OPEN ACCESS. </strong><strong>Copyright: Copyright (c) 2015-2018 </strong></p> <p><strong>LICENSED BY: THE WORK OF PJSEL IS LICENSED UNDER CREATIVE COMMON ATTRIBUTION 4.0 INTERNATIONAL </strong></p> LEARNING STYLES INVENTORY AND EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING THEORIES AN INTEGRATIVE REVIEW OF LITERATURE https://pjsel.jehanf.com/index.php/journal/article/view/58 <p>Kolb Learning Style Inventory (KLSI). Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory (KLSI) and Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model (ELT) theories are referenced in 55% of academic journal articles, 20% of doctoral dissertations, 10% of books and book chapters, and 15% of conference proceedings, research reports, and other studies of experiential learning. Despite its popularity and widespread use, the theoretical underpinnings of Kolb’s theories are questioned. Others argue Kolb’s approach for measuring the effectiveness of his theories as being “weak to moderate.”However, the results of quantitative studies suggest ANOVA statistics documenting the interrater agreement between the use of Kolb’s cyclical transformation learning techniques and cognitive achievement increases at a statistically significance Cohen’s Kappa 0.003 reliability indicator. The purpose of this integrative literature review was to use Cooper’s Taxonomy of Literature Review guidelines to gather and analyze works that studied the topic of inquiry. Of the 50 works analyzed, the findings of 19 studies were synthesized and implications were noted. The findings were used to present recommendations for additional studies. This study was significant because it infers additional valid, reliable, and scalable research is needed to resolve the conflicts and recommends several strategies to accomplish this goal.</p> Jennie Larry Johnson Adil Akhtar Khan Kashif Saeed Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-01-03 2020-01-03 6 1 1 12 THE MAIN PROBLEMS OF ADOLESCENTS RAISED IN DISADVANTAGED FAMILIES IN UKRAINE: THE REGIONAL ASPECT https://pjsel.jehanf.com/index.php/journal/article/view/62 <p>The study is aimed at diagnosing underprivileged adolescents in a separate educational institution in order to get an opportunity to observe the acceptable behavior of other participants during the training and to adopt experience accordingly. Young people are psychologically helpless, unprotected, and vulnerable in difficult life situations. They do not have certain life skills that allow them to choose effective ways to relieve stress and tension, give the opportunity to independently cope with the action of stressful situations and form a healthy lifestyle. There is an increase in the forms of maladaptive and deviant behavior in children and adolescents. The solution to this problem is the development and implementation of preventive programs aimed at the assimilation of adaptive forms of behavior by children and adolescents.</p> Popovych Vasyl Holonic Jan Shsherbyna Serhii Dudaryov Vitaliy Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-01-03 2020-01-03 6 1 13 26 STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS ABOUT TEACHER QUESTIONING TECHNIQUE IN EFL CLASSROOM: A CASE STUDY OF UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN DIR LOWER https://pjsel.jehanf.com/index.php/journal/article/view/63 <p>This paper aimed to find out the students’ perceptions about teacher questioning technique in EFL classroom. Teacher questioning is integral part of classroom interaction and teaching learning process. Teachers’ questioning technique is a source of motivation for learners, effective tool for elicitation of information and maximizes classroom interaction. The current study was conducted in district Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Undergraduate level students of different colleges of the University of Malakand were selected for the present study. The respondents of the study were selected through random purposive sampling technique. Fifty students from each college participated and as a whole 200 students were taken for this study as respondents. The data were collected from the respondents through questionnaires. After the data collection, the data were analyzed statistically through frequencies and percentages. The study found out that students have positive perceptions about teacher questioning technique in EFL classroom. It is a great source for classroom interaction, since it always keeps the learners activated and motivated in the EFL classroom. This research suggested that teacher questioning technique has positive impact on students’ performance in English language learning</p> Zaheer Ullah Aziz Ul Hakim Sana Ullah Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-01-03 2020-01-03 6 1 27 36 IMPACTS OF AFGHAN REFUGEES ON SECURITY SITUATION OF PAKISTAN https://pjsel.jehanf.com/index.php/journal/article/view/64 <p>This study was conducted in Chakdara, District Dir Lower, which is one of the major cities of District Dir Lower and where there is a huge camp for Afghan refugees. The objectives of this study are to find out the impacts of Afghan refugees on the security situation of Chakdara. Apart from the local population of Chakdara, which is 29,712, some 11,184 refugees live in camp while some of the refugees live out of camp in Chakdara and surrounding areas. In order to know whether these refugees have any impact on the security situation of the area, a sample size of 379 respondents was selected through stratified random sampling from the local community. The sample size, 379, was taken according to Sekaran method. Data was collected through interview schedule and their views about the impacts of refugees on security were found. The study proved that the massive influx of Afghan refugees to Chakdara has not only created social, political, economic, environmental and ecological problems, but also caused an alarming threat to Pakistan’s internal security. Because of the presence of refugees, the law and order situation has become worst and the crime rate has increased enormously in Chakdara. It is clear from the study that the refugees are wholly solely responsible for promoting Kalashnikov culture, drug trafficking and various other crimes in Chakdara. The study shows that the Afghan refugees are the main source of anarchy and sectarian differences among the local people of the study area. </p> Jehan Ul Mulk Basit Ali Atta Ullah Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-01-03 2020-01-03 6 1 37 46 CULTURAL“SYNCRETICITY”: A POSTCOLONIAL ANALYSIS OF CHINUA ACHEBE’S NO LONGER AT EASE https://pjsel.jehanf.com/index.php/journal/article/view/65 <p>The present position paper explores cultural “syncreticity” (or cultural hybridity) in Chinua Achebe’s “No Longer At Ease” (1960). The researchers, in the Anglo-Nigerian sociocultural milieu, probes the fused personality traits of the protagonist (Obi Okonkwo) in the narrative. Obi oscillates between the overwhelming English colonialism and the Nigerian colonised culture, resulting in a hybrid identity, and consequently, passing through the interstitial socio-cultural events and experiences. He endeavours hard to assimilate the twin identities—the overbearing colonial character and the subdued colonised individuality— during which he undergoes an arduous state and status of “in-betweenness”. The allegiance he owes to the colonial masters, and the cultural adaptation in the Nigerian society leaves his character asunder, thus causing an ambivalent condition of alienated identity and cultural crisis. The current study invokes Bhabha’s theory of cultural hybridity, converging on his seminal work, “The Location of Culture” (1994), for analysing the culturally fused Obi and the circumstances coming into view thereafter. Cultural hybridity, in the existing context, comes under the broad rubric of postcolonial theory and practise. Methodologically, the narrative is probed into and unravelled through the interpretation of the momentous events, influencing the character traits of the protagonist, and their subsequent impact on the Ibo (the protagonist’s native tribe).</p> Tariq Khan Aziz Ahmed Naseer Ahmad Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-01-03 2020-01-03 6 1 47 55 HERBAL MEDICINE: AN ASSOCIATE OF POOR HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG HEPATITIS C PATIENTS https://pjsel.jehanf.com/index.php/journal/article/view/68 <p>The current study aimed at finding the association of Health-Related Quality of Life among Hepatitis C patients (dependent variable) with use of herbal medicine to cure Hepatitis C (independent variable). The study was conducted in three teaching Hospitals at Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. A sample size of 361 respondents were proportionally allocated to each Hospital and then selected through systematic sampling techniques. Data was collected on a three level Likert Scale interview schedule covering both the study variables. The association of independent variable (use of herbal medicine to cure disease) and dependent variable (Health-Related Quality of Life) were tested by using Chi-Square (x2) statistics. The association of Health-Related Quality of Life found significant (P=0.007) with Hepatitis C patient did seek treatment from traditional practitioner ever before, patients have used herbal medicine to cure HCV (P=0.002), herbal medicines are inexpensiveness (P=0.002), patients were not accessed due to their geographical remoteness (P=0.002),patients were convinced by family (P=0.000),patients believe in herbal medicines (P=0.005) and patients exposed truth to physician regarding the use of herbal medicine to cure Hepatitis C (P=0.005). Strong check on herbal medicine stores and laboratories by the drug inspector were some of the recommendations in light of the study.</p> Qudrat Ullah Asad Ullah Sajid Ali Muhammad Tariq Saira Ashraf Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-01-03 2020-01-03 6 1 56 70 PSYCHOLOGICAL DEPRIVATION AMONG WIDOWS AND ITS EFFECTS ON THEIR QUALITY OF LIFE IN MALAKAND DIVISION https://pjsel.jehanf.com/index.php/journal/article/view/69 <p>The objective of the study was to analyze various dimensions of psychological and emotional problems faced by widows and its immediate effects on their quality of life. The present study was conducted in District Lower Dir Malakand Division. The total number of union councils in Dir lower is 198, from which three were selected purposively. The data was collected from the primary respondents; widows. A sample size selection criterion was based upon pilot survey of three union councils, where the total number of widows was 356. Methods of percentage and frequency were used in uni-variate analysis and similarly Chi-Square test was conducted through Bi-Variate analysis. At Uni-Variate analysis, majority of the respondents viewed that they are facing psychological problems in the form of tension, anxiety, depression, extortion, sexual assault and harassment. Moreover, at Bi-Variate analysis significant association was found between widows quality of life and their psychological problems, P= (.001) in the form of feelings of loneliness and rejection are reported more in divorced/widow women. Similarly, P= (0.001) widows are often unwelcome at social events and religious festivals and avoided by others because they are considered source of bad luck. In addition, P= (0.000) Widows faces harassment, P= (0.000) Widow faces extortion. It has been summarized that, psychologically, widows are victims of more depression, more anxiety and stress as compared to married women. It has also been recommended that Widows should be made emotionally and psychologically secure through remarriage, social acceptance, psychotherapy and counseling.</p> Ibrar Ahmad Intikhab Alam Aziz ul Hakim Faiza Yousaf Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-01-03 2020-01-03 6 1 71 80 SOCIAL IMPACT OF ENERGY CRISIS ON SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIAL WORKERS IN DISTRICT SWAT https://pjsel.jehanf.com/index.php/journal/article/view/70 <p>Electricity is considered as the backbone for the economy’s prosperity, progress and plays a crucial role in the socio-economic development of a nation. With rapid development and technological innovations, the utilization of energy resources has also mounted due to which the demand for energy has increased instantaneously, while resources have been squeezed, consequently massive power outages have been observed in the country. As a result, it has severely affected the overall sector of the country, especially the industries and their laborers as well. This study investigates social impact of energy crisis on small scale industrial workers in District Swat. A pure qualitative approach has been adopted and the data was collected from 30 male respondents (two each of Marble, Plastic, Garments, Silks and Cosmetics industries). Interview guide was used as a tool of data collection where open ended question regarding the social impact of the respondents were asked and were thematically analyzed. Further, a descriptive discussion was made supported by secondary data. Results of the study show that agonizing power cut have decreased the working hours of the laborers, industrial productions have fallen to a great extent and as a result, the industrial workforce has been decreased up to maximum extent. Further, it was difficult for the workers to maintain their family expenditures and activities of daily lives consequently, their children socialization and education. The government shall be practical towards the development of power sector and the industrial sectors may be declared exempt of load shedding throughout the country.</p> Shahid Khan Mumlikat Begum Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-01-03 2020-01-03 6 1 81 93 THE ROLE OF ANTI-TALIBAN LASHKAR (ARMED MILITIA) IN PREVENTION OF TERRORISM IN CONFLICT AFFECTED AREAS https://pjsel.jehanf.com/index.php/journal/article/view/71 <p>The present study aims at investigating the role of Pakhtun’s traditional institution called Lashkar (armed militia) in peace making at conflict affected communities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. For this purpose, Data were collected through a structured interview schedule from a sample of 278 household members in four selected villages of Dir Upper and Dir Lower Districts. A Chi square test was applied to ascertain association between different aspects of independent variable Lashkar with dependent variable the state of peace in the study area. It was found that the presence of Lashkar in the area has a significant association with state of peace in the area. The role of Lashkar in pushing out militants from the area, maintaining control, provision of safety and security to local people were the main significant aspects related to peace in the area. On the other hand, a non-significant association was noted between the state of peace with provision of arms to Lashkar by government and Lashkar as a symbol of peace in the area. It is concluded that in the face of external aggression Lashkar is playing a vital role the security of community but it is not considered as a whole the symbol of peace and the government should not facilitate provision of arms to local people.</p> Nizar Ahmad Syed Rashid Ali Arshad Khan Bangash Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-01-03 2020-01-03 6 1 94 102 WEAPONIZATION OF TEACHERS AND ITS PSYCHO-EDUCATIONAL IMPACT ON LEARNING ENVIRONMENT IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS OF DISTRICT CHARSADDA https://pjsel.jehanf.com/index.php/journal/article/view/72 <p>Weaponization of Teachers refers to arming teachers with guns for security protection. This concept started after terrorism attacks over schools, Colleges and Universities. Especially in Pakistan after terrorist attacked over Army Public school on December 16, 2014 and University of Bacha khan located on January 20, 2016 at Charsadda. Provincial government decided to arm and give proper training to teachers for self-protection. Safety for teachers and students is an issue that stays close to administrator’s minds always as the doors of schools are opened each day. They started training of teachers in whole province including our female teachers. There are many advantages and disadvantages to having teachers act as security guards for a school. On the other hand, some people criticising this act from government side. They argued that weaponization badly affected the education promotion process especially among female. So in this study the researcher evaluated through Mix Method research and analysed the impact of arming faculty members can help in securing lives or harm education purpose. Respondents concluded that weaponization leads to fear among students and further that added that terrorism will be defeated with Pen not gun.</p> Imtiaz Ali Naimatullah Hashmi Anas Baryal Aamir Sohail Khatak Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-01-03 2020-01-03 6 1 103 112 PAKISTAN’S AFGHAN POLICY: TRENDS AND PROSPECTS https://pjsel.jehanf.com/index.php/journal/article/view/73 <p>Pakistan and Afghanistan have been gifted with such a unique geographic location, which attracts every state towards itself. Either it is in strategic or economic perspective they are important for the region, especially and the World commonly. No two nations have got the commonalities as Pakistan and Afghanistan have. Not only their geography, religion, or blood is same but they have same history due to their ethnic, cultural, and political common attributes. Nevertheless, since the inception of Pakistan, in 1947, both of these states have experienced crests and troughs throughout their relations. The regional states have used Afghan soil against Pakistan, time and again. Yet, the decades’ long atrocities in Afghanistan have compelled Pakistan to live, move and fight together with its brother Afghanistan for the sake of its own security. This paper will look for the Pakistan’s Policies which it has opted for its relations with Afghanistan from its beginning, and will also try to cover the future prospects of their relations.</p> Mairaj Ul Hamid Abid Khan Rizwan Ullah Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-01-03 2020-01-03 6 1 113 127