Pakistan Journal of Society, Education and Language (PJSEL) https://pjsel.jehanf.com/index.php/journal <p>PJSEL is multi-disciplinary journal following a double-blind peer-reviewed policy and the journal freely available online as well as in print form. The aim of the PJSEL is to publish articles that contribute significantly to the body of knowledge. It publishes both theoretical and empirical articles and case studies relating to social sciences (sociology, anthropology, psychology, political sciences etc), education and English language and literature. Preference is given to contributions based on empirical research. However, book reviews and theoretical papers of immense importance / relevance for social scientists, educationists and linguists are also published.</p> <p><strong>PJSEL</strong> is published in English twice a year. This academic and scholarly peer reviewed journal is available both online and in print.<br />PJSEL hopes that researchers, research scholars, academicians, scientists and policy makers would benefit from the published research for the development of society, education and language studies.</p> <p><strong>PJSEL</strong> welcomes high quality papers in the fields of Social Sciences, Education, Language and Linguistics. Manuscripts submitted are reviewed and published once accepted for publication. All the manuscripts submitted for publication are initially reviewed to ensure they are original, relevant and readable. <strong>PJSEL</strong> encourages online submission. In case of justified reasons, manuscripts can also be addressed to <a href="mailto:editorpjsel@gmail.com"><strong>editorpjsel@gmail.com</strong></a></p> <p><img src="blob:https://pjsel.jehanf.com/fe4cd184-4267-4bc0-ac4b-6ec45e05be37" alt="Licensing and Citation – Teaching With Rich Media" /></p> <p> </p> JEHAN FOUNDATION en-US Pakistan Journal of Society, Education and Language (PJSEL) 2521-8123 <p><strong>PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF SOCIETY, EDUCATION AND LANGUAGE (PJSEL)</strong><strong>Abbreviated KEY Title: Pak. j. soc. educ. lang. (Online) </strong><strong>URL: <a href="http://pjsel.jehanf.com/archives.php">http://pjsel.jehanf.com/archives.php </a></strong><strong>ISSN 2523-1227 (Online), ISSN 2521-8123 (Print</strong></p> <p><strong>Editor’s Email: <a href="mailto:editorpjsel@gmail.com">editorpjsel@gmail.com </a></strong><strong>Nature of Publication: OPEN ACCESS. </strong><strong>Copyright: Copyright (c) 2015-2018 </strong></p> <p><strong>LICENSED BY: THE WORK OF PJSEL IS LICENSED UNDER CREATIVE COMMON ATTRIBUTION 4.0 INTERNATIONAL </strong></p> ISLAM & PAKISTAN: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS https://pjsel.jehanf.com/index.php/journal/article/view/209 <p>This article talks about the current religious, political and social practices, worldviews of different scholars on these practices and my personal understanding of these worldviews with a special focus on Islam and Pakistan. It is considered that Islam is a religion that promotes authoritarianism, patriarchy and moralistic views, but I argue against such allegations on the basis of Quran and its scholars. At the same time, this article is an attempt to develop a critique of unjust socio-religious practices in the name of Islam, a misleading education system and raising question that why Islam was being misinterpreted or interpreted differently by specific schools of thought. These misinterpretations can be observed in the issues of gender inequality, forced marriages, corporal punishment, discriminating minorities, victimizing other groups who have different religious opinion and introduction of brutal laws like Hudood Ordinance. This article is also a critical review of political decisions made by the politicians throughout the history of Pakistan by using Islam for political gains.</p> Shakir Muhammad Usman Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-29 2020-07-29 6 2 1 14 DO REFUGEES COMMIT CRIMES? UNDERSTANDING AFGHAN REFUGEES’ INVOLVEMENT IN CRIMES IN QUETTA, PAKISTAN https://pjsel.jehanf.com/index.php/journal/article/view/210 <p>The post-Soviet war situation in Afghanistan pushed a large number of natives out of country mainly to the two neighboring countries, a) Pakistan and b) Iran. It is estimated that more than three million (both documented and undocumented) Afghan refugees still inhabit in the different regions of Pakistan but most of them are concentrated in the borderlands adjacent to the Pakistan-Afghan border. The district Quetta houses a reasonable number of Afghan refugees since their arrival during 1980s. Afghan refugees are stigmatized as key actors in different kinds of crimes in the district Quetta. For the current research study 150 respondents were approached and responses were enumerated with the help of a well-structured interview schedule. For the selection of the respondents a purposive sampling method was used. The respondents were asked about the possible involvement of Afghan refugees in different crimes. In people’s perceptions some of the Afghan refugees were actively participating in the following types of crimes in the city: a) terrorism, b) kidnapping, robbing and looting, c) killings, and d) drugs trafficking. They further highlighted that there is a positive association between the lower economic conditions of Afghan refugees and their involvement in the crimes. Rational choice theory was used in this research. <br><br></p> Sarfraz Khan Arsalan Ahmed Sundas Ayyub Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-29 2020-07-29 6 2 15 25 IDEOLOGICAL AND STEREOTYPICAL REPRESENTATION OF THE POLITICAL ELITES: A STUDY OF THE EDITORIAL CARTOONS IN THE NATION https://pjsel.jehanf.com/index.php/journal/article/view/211 <p>The present paper attempts to explore and analyze the discursive and semiotic strategies used by the editors and cartoonists to ideologically and stereotypically represent the Pakistani political elites and thereby shaping and constructing the readers’ ideologies and world views. A multimodal discourse study is conducted for the analysis of the editorial cartoons purposively selected from a Pakistani English newspaper The Nation. The multimodal discourse analysis of the editorial cartoons reveals that the editors and cartoonists favour one group of the political elites (ingroup) over the other (out-group). In the modern world of science and technology, electronic and print media as sources are used to communicate, negotiate and exchange news and information with the audience and readers, using verbal and visual signs (pictures/images). Editorial cartoons as media discourses are one of the sources for spreading and sharing the news and information related to satire, irony and criticism. The findings indicate that the editors and cartoonists, being political, perspectival and ideological, attribute good qualities to the in-group political elites and represent them as honest and truthful. Moreover, they associate bad qualities to the out-group political elites and stereotype them as dishonest and untruthful. <br><br></p> Nazir Muhammad Rab Nawaz Khan Tariq Khan Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-29 2020-07-29 6 2 26 38 ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIP IN BOLLYWOOD MOVIES: AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF CONTENT PRODUCED BETWEEN 1995 AND 2016 https://pjsel.jehanf.com/index.php/journal/article/view/212 <p>This study was conducted to analyze the process of romantic relationship in the Bollywood movies since 1995 up to 2016. The study was conducted on the basis of quantitative content analysis methodology, while using coding sheet for the data collection. For movies’ selection, the researcher conducted pilot study in the University of Swat to select the movies which were comparatively more romantic. The data collected was analyzed through statistical package for social sciences (SPSS, 21 versions). The results revealed that romantic relations’ element existed in the movies, which is a non-interval process. The study also disclosed that a male is more involved in romantic relationship than a female. The results of the study supported the research questions that in the beginning, males are impressing females in romantic relationships. It is also concluded that in the movies, a male shares love feelings with a friend while a female shares her love feelings with her parents. The study revealed that males are giving more gifts to females in love relations. It is also disclosed that males do any kind of act and services that pleases females in the movies. The research reveals that mostly upper middle-class people and urban areas’ people were involved in romantic relations more than middle-class and rural areas’ population. The research also supported the assumption of the Social Penetration Theory that the romantic relationship is a process, where lovers continuously follow some steps to strengthen the relationship. <br><br><br></p> Syed Zeshan Ali Shah Sajjad Ali Junaid Nazir Muhmmad Shahid Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-29 2020-07-29 6 2 39 55 FACTORS AFFECTING THE CAREER ASPIRATIONS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN https://pjsel.jehanf.com/index.php/journal/article/view/213 <p>Multiple factors influence the career aspirations of students in secondary schools. The study aimed to explore the career aspirations of secondary school students, factors affecting the career aspirations of students, gender wise comparison of factors affecting the career aspirations of male and female students and the development of effective strategies for career guidance of students in secondary schools. All the students of government higher secondary schools in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were the population of the study, however; study sample of (1000) students was selected through cluster sampling while for gathering qualitative data a sample of 20 students was purposively selected. The study utilized mixed methods explanatory sequential for which quantitative data was gathered through questionnaire and qualitative data through semi-structured interviews. Further, quantitative data was analyzed using Chi-square statistics while qualitative data was analyzed thematically. The study explored that Medical, Teaching, Engineering, Armed forces and Civil services as major career aspirations of secondary schools’ students. It was also highlighted that effect of students’ parents, personalities, socio-economic status, families, society and its traditions, as major factors affecting the career aspirations of students, while a significant gender wise differences was found as male career aspirations were based on their personalities, parents and socio-economic status while parents, personality and family as major factors affecting the career choices of female students and recommended the provision of career guidance facilities for effective career planning of students in secondary schools. <br><br></p> Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-29 2020-07-29 6 2 56 69 SOCIAL EXCLUSION OF TRANSGENDER COMMUNITY IN DISTRICT CHARSADDA https://pjsel.jehanf.com/index.php/journal/article/view/220 <p>Transgender community a neglected group in society exist in every part of the world. It’s a group of peoples that identifies with a variety of gender and sexual identities. Social exclusion of transgender community varies from society to society. Exclusion of transgender is position when they are expelled from different walk of life. Pakistani transgender community is no different from them. They are socially and culturally excluded and marginalized in many compromises like health, education job etc. Pakistani transgender community lives in extremely poverty. The present study was qualitative in nature and focus on the exclusion of transgender and impact of exclusion on their life in District Charsadda. Through a well-designed open ended questionnaire data was collected. Different points was located and were identifies where through in depth interviews, observation and focus group discussion data was collected. From the study it is concluded that transgender community is socially and culturally excluded from normal life. They face many problems in life due to which they are compelled to live a life which deteriorates their self-worth and sense of social responsibility. <br><br><br></p> Aamir Sohail Khatak Mazhar Hussain Bhutta Arshad Khan Bangash Imtiaz Ali Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-29 2020-07-29 6 2 70 80 DISCURSIVE STRATEGIZING OF PARADOXICALLY PLACED PAIN AND PLEASURE: A BENTHAMIAN ANALYSIS OF RAMZY BAROUD’S THE LAST EARTH https://pjsel.jehanf.com/index.php/journal/article/view/215 <p>Palestinians were othered out, oppressed, tortured, and displaced from their houses by Zionist Israelis and denied their basic human right to own their native place. These oppressions highlighted not only in fiction but also in Palestinian memoirs, providing ample room for discursive analyses of the issue. Since, Jeremy Bentham has devised the principles of morality and legislation to gauge the modus-vivendi for public affairs and conflicts, the painful and pleasure-seeking acts of the main characters in selected memoir, act as compensation of their rightful ownership of their lives to prove the capacity of Being or Dasein. The current study deals with the textual analysis of Ramzy Baroud’s memoir The Last Earth - A Palestinian Story. The level of morality depicted in the memoir, highlights the discursive strategy of the author to protest against the unjust treatment of Zionists. It brings to world acknowledgement, how the Israelis have forced Palestinians to migrate and find solace in the fake and transitory happiness to approve their humanness. This pain of the Muslim Palestinian refugee community, creates the sense of pleasure in Zionist Israelis and their liaising nations, on the basis of physical, political, moral, and religious grounds. The study also highlights the real life characters’ struggle to find transitory happiness amidst all chaos and oppression as a ray of hope and positivity.</p> Farheen Shakir Inayat Ullah Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-29 2020-07-29 6 2 81 94 GAUGING THE IMPACT OF MODERNIZATION ON MARRIAGE INSTITUTION IN SWAT, PAKISTAN: A QUALITATIVE APPROACH https://pjsel.jehanf.com/index.php/journal/article/view/216 <p>Like other societies of the world, Pakistan is also fronting influences of modernization in different walks of life. In most parts of the world, marriage is the central aspect of social structure. This article critically analyses the link between the impacts of modernization on marriage institution in Pakhtun society. The data was obtained from the sampled participants (n=35 In-Depth Interviews &amp; n=07 Focus Group Discussions) of seven tehsils of district Swat. The unit of the study has been divided into different strata like lawyers, literary persons, intellectuals, politicians, and community leaders respectively. Further, different themes &amp; sub-themes were identified followed by the codification of the data and successively analyzed and presented in the form of thematic analysis. The study results revealed that modernization due to its associated facets like education, media (especially social media), technological advancement, urbanization, etc. impacted different aspects of marriage institution e.g. exogamous/endogamous marriages, marriage patterns, marriage types, the practice of Swara marriage, the practice of dowry, Dower, matrimonial endorsement, the wedding halls culture, and the concept of divorce. <br><br><br></p> Imran Niaz Muhammad Intikhab Alam Noor Ullah Khan Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-29 2020-07-29 6 2 95 106 SOCIAL IMPACTS OF AFGHAN REFUGEES ON PAKISTANI SOCIETY https://pjsel.jehanf.com/index.php/journal/article/view/217 <p>This study was conducted in Chakdara, District Dir Lower, which is one of the major cities of District Dir Lower and where there is a huge camp for Afghan refugees. The objectives of this study are to find out the impacts of Afghan refugees on the security situation of Chakdara. Apart from the local population of Chakdara, which is 29,712, some 11,184 refugees live in camp while some of the refugees live out of camp in Chakdara and surrounding areas. In order to know whether these refugees have any impact on the security situation of the area, a sample size of 379 respondents was selected through stratified random sampling from the local community using Sekaran method (2003). Data was collected through interview schedule and their views about the impacts of refugees on security were found. The study proved that the massive influx of Afghan refugees to Chakdara has not only created social, political, economic, environmental and ecological problems, but also caused an alarming threat to Pakistan’s internal security. Because of the presence of refugees, drastic changes came in the social setup of local community. Local people have adopted new trends of dressings, cooking, art, music etc. Besides, the crime rate such as theft, drug trafficking, street crimes, and beggary has been increased enormously in Chakdara. They also have a role in increased number of beggars in the area. It is clear from the study that the Afghan refugees have aggravated the local social system. The study also shows that the Afghan refugees are the main source of disputes in the area. <br><br></p> Jehan-Ul-Mulk Basit Ali Ahmad Ali Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-29 2020-07-29 6 2 107 118 IMPACTS OF HINDU WEDDING CULTURE: AN APPRAISAL OF CURRENT WEDDING TRENDS IN PAKISTAN https://pjsel.jehanf.com/index.php/journal/article/view/218 <p>Development and preservation of distinctive Islamic culture was one of the significant and major objectives of the creation of Pakistan. It involves not only the fate of the Muslims of the Subcontinent but also raises question about their capabilities and abilities to preserve and practice those distinctive values on the basis of which the demand was made. In this perspective analysis of wedding culture in Pakistan is very important. Islam accommodates cultural diversities to the extent that these diversities do not come in contrast with the teachings of Islam. In Islam marriage is not only obligatory but it is a part of Sunnah. Walima and Nikkah are fundamental Islamic wedding rituals. All of the others have been adopted from the Hindu culture through the process of acculturation when Muslims and Hindus were living together in the united India or through the cultural diffusion via electronic media after division. Intermingling of Hindu and Muslim wedding culture is adversely affecting separate identity of the Muslims which had once provided theoretical and ideological foundation for the Pakistan Movement. The paper will strive to analyze the extent of penetration of Hindu culture into Muslim culture and its consequences upon Muslim society by proceeding qualitative and exploratory approach. It also aims at highlighting prevailing scenario of now a day kind of marriages as well as the teaching of Islam in order to identify and classify them as parallel or contrary to Islam. <br><br></p> Sumaira Bibi Sultan Mahmood Muhammad Rizwan Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-29 2020-07-29 6 2 119 130