Pakistan Journal of Society, Education and Language (PJSEL) <p><strong>Call for Papers</strong></p> <p><strong>Pakistan Journal of Society, Education and Language</strong> (PJSEL) is HEC Recognized “Y” Category with <strong>ISSN 2523-1227 (Online), ISSN 2521-8123 (Print)</strong>. <strong>The journal is bi-annual publish papers in June and December.</strong> The journal provides a forum for the publication of original papers on a variety of issues pertaining to social sciences including but not limited to: Sociology, Anthropology, Psychology, Political science, Economics, Law, International Relations, Public Health, Archaeology, Gender Studies, Education and English Linguistics and Literature. PJSEL call for Papers for next issue (Vol. 9 Issue. 01 December, 2022) is open now.</p> <p><strong>Interested research scholars can submit their paper</strong><strong> through OJS portal:</strong></p> <p><a href=""></a></p> <p><strong>or through email:</strong></p> <p>For any query please contact the editorial team at email:</p> <p> </p> <p><em><strong>From Editorial Board </strong></em></p> <p><em><strong>Pakistan Journal of Society, Education and Language (PJSEL)</strong></em></p> <p> </p> <p><a href=";id=503537#journal_result"><strong>PJSEL is HEC Recognised Y category journal.</strong></a></p> <p>PJSEL is multi-disciplinary journal following a double-blind peer-reviewed policy and the journal freely available online as well as in print form. The aim of the PJSEL is to publish articles that contribute significantly to the body of knowledge. It publishes both theoretical and empirical articles and case studies relating to social sciences (sociology, anthropology, psychology, political sciences etc), education and English language and literature. Preference is given to contributions based on empirical research. However, book reviews and theoretical papers of immense importance / relevance for social scientists, educationists and linguists are also published.</p> <p><strong>PJSEL</strong> is published in English twice a year. This academic and scholarly peer reviewed journal is available both online and in print.<br />PJSEL hopes that researchers, research scholars, academicians, scientists and policy makers would benefit from the published research for the development of society, education and language studies.</p> <p><strong>PJSEL</strong> welcomes high quality papers in the fields of Social Sciences, Education, Language and Linguistics. Manuscripts submitted are reviewed and published once accepted for publication. All the manuscripts submitted for publication are initially reviewed to ensure they are original, relevant and readable. <strong>PJSEL</strong> encourages online submission. In case of justified reasons, manuscripts can also be addressed to <a href=""><strong></strong></a></p> <p><img src="blob:" alt="Licensing and Citation – Teaching With Rich Media" /></p> <p> </p> en-US <p><strong>PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF SOCIETY, EDUCATION AND LANGUAGE (PJSEL)</strong><strong>Abbreviated KEY Title: Pak. j. soc. educ. lang. (Online) </strong><strong>URL: <a href=""> </a></strong><strong>ISSN 2523-1227 (Online), ISSN 2521-8123 (Print</strong></p> <p><strong>Editor’s Email: <a href=""> </a></strong><strong>Nature of Publication: OPEN ACCESS. </strong><strong>Copyright: Copyright (c) 2015-2018 </strong></p> <p><strong>LICENSED BY: THE WORK OF PJSEL IS LICENSED UNDER CREATIVE COMMON ATTRIBUTION 4.0 INTERNATIONAL </strong></p> (Dr. Waseem Khan) (Faisal Abrar) Fri, 10 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 OJS 60 PRACTICING CODE MIXING IN TEACHING ENGLISH IN HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOLS <p>The Present article investigates the Effectiveness of Mixing of code in teaching English at the secondary stage. In the study of Linguistics, switching of code is a transition of words of one language to another in the form of sentence. The present study shows the type of a single sentence which is so called intra-sentential switching of code. The study captivated to determine the significance of mixing of code in the classes of English Language and attitude of teachers and students towards the use of mixing of code. This research is based on the qualitative and quantitative paradigm particularly mixing of code in a useful teaching strategy for language learners. The researchers has designed two questionnaires, one questionnaire is for the teachers and the other for <br>the students to collect the responses of both regarding the mixing of code. To reach at the definite conclusion, percentage was calculated to determine the students’ and teachers’ attitudes regarding effectiveness of mixingthe code in teaching English. Finally, the results of the study demonstrate <br>pivotal role in the blending of words into another language. Moreover, the findings of the study suggest that mixing of code is widely used by English as Second Language (ESL) teachers.<br><br></p> Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 -0400 ANALYZING USAGE OF MEDIA DEVICES AND PARENTAL MEDIATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOL CHILDREN OF ISLAMABAD <p>This study aims to examine the exposure and use of media devices in children, their usage patterns while reviewing parental mediation as well. This study is particularly focused on children studying in high school who may need media devices as a support for educational purposes as well as for leisure <br>activities. It explores the way parental mediation take place along with the children media usage. Since the use of media devices is drastically increased among children in recent times, it’s significant to assess the parent-child utilization of media. Therefore, this study suggests to devise a framework <br>in the form of media literacy to enhance productivity of media devices for both children and their parents. This research has used quantitative method and conducted a survey for data collection from secondary school students based in Islamabad, Pakistan. The findings help to identify the child parent mediation pattern and also highlights the stake of media devices in children’s routine activities. <br>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 23 May 2022 00:00:00 -0400 SUBSCRIBING DOMINANT CULTURE: A SEMIOTIC STUDY OF GENDER IDENTITY AND SOCIALIZATION PATTERNS IN PAKISTANI MEDIA DISCOURSE <p>The present study seeks to highlight the contemporary gender socialization narrative in Pakistani media discourse. Media discourse tends to represent dominant gender ideology mechanism which is implicitly employed by the advertisers through semiotic modes. It has the power to (re)frame the ideology of larger audience through significant visual/linguistic content and paves the way for social change through viable social institutions which disseminate information to a wider audience. The study follows theoretical stance propounded by Dyer (1982) in Advertising as Communication. The domain of semiotics (order of signification) is a reliable and valid tool for investigating meaning making process in media discourse. The data is comprised of some popular television commercials which are broadcast on the most viewed channels during the peak time viewership in Pakistani context. Purposive sampling technique has been taken into account for data collection process including only those commercials which largely reflect gender socializing patterns. The study finds <br>that the commercials present layers of meanings via several orders of signification where gender socialization patterns are stereotypically displayed, subscribing to patriarchal structures. <br><br></p> Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 23 May 2022 00:00:00 -0400 REDEFINING TRANSPORT SCAPE SYSTEM FOR SPRAWLINGCITIES "A CASE STUDY OF ABBOTTABAD" <p>Growing sprawls generally covered hilly topographical landscapes with concrete residential and township masses, the catastrophe and anomaly that applies to the correct distribution of land usage within communities with natural landforms for the developed regions. The public's dogmatic mannerism of not reacting sensibly to this relevant topic frequently inflames the ongoing proliferation of mushrooms and uncontainable sprawl inside urban settings. This not only causes the severe infringement of the right of way assigned to sewers and natural drains, but also encourages the citizens to be the landgrabbers of public property. This problem escalates massively to the point of blocking the drains with rainwater and makes it possible for water to reach public properties, homes, as well as main transit roads along with secondary and tertiary routes. Apart from the megacities of Pakistan smaller cities and towns are also significantly affected by these issues. Its magnitude is obvious considering swift, unchecked cycles of mushroom development by preordained urbanization. That, in effect, expresses the consequences by catastrophically rising motorization and problemstricken automobile transports through cities and small towns. This paper discusses urban sprawl and amalgamation of the city of Abbottabad and suggests that these can be controlled by redefining the <br>transport planning strategies with new suggested approaches synergizing multidimensional attributes towards cityscape.The focus of this article is the possible solutions that could be proposed for the predominant problem of upsetting vehicle flow through Abbottabad. This study suggests that for cities <br>having inherited organic character, like Abbottabad, a context-sensitive transport substructure system should be devised.The solutions were achieved through retrospective/prospective typology of research design.The literature review catered the understanding of urban design, Urban sprawl and urban growth, Urban Transportation system, building skyline and city elevation, Urban scape systems for organically significant cities and Inter-relationship of attributes within perspective of urban scape system, that was elaborated with the help of international case studies having relevant research scope and perimeters. Observation Performa was also used as the major research tool for the collection of primary and secondary data.<br>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 23 May 2022 00:00:00 -0400 PROSPECTIVE EVALUATION OF MATERNAL PRIVATION IN YOUNG GIRLS: AN ANALYSIS OF ANNE FRANK'S “THE DIARY OF A YOUNG GIRL” <p>This research paper reveals behavioral patterns of Anne Frank regarding maternal privation through thematic analysis of her autobiography, “The Diary of a Young Girl” (1993). Bowlby’s PDD model provides theoretical background that helps in understanding the role of a mother in upbringing a female child. The findings reveal that maternal privation causes distortion in Anne’s behavior and she goes through various stages of distress. This study unveils that Anne at first becomes impertinent due to her mother's incessant criticism. Then, she stops interacting with people in the despair stage. But finally, she becomes independent of her mother. The findings of this research extend Bowlby’s stages of PDD model and contribute another possible stage “Cyclic Reattachments” to it which shows that the behavioral changes of a female child do not end here; rather a prominent cyclic pattern of unstable reattachments is formed throughout her life. Moreover, this paper suggests that the findings of the study appear to be very helpful in establishing a strong mother-daughter relationship where mothers could perhaps avoid privation by being a secure and trustworthy guiding figure in their female child’s life. In this way, they would be able to listen to them and would ensure love, guidance and security to raise a healthy generation. <br>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 23 May 2022 00:00:00 -0400 THE IMPACT OF POSITIVE PARENTING ON THE SELF-ESTEEM OF ADOLESCENTS <p>The present study aimed to explore the different types of parenting styles used by parents nowadays and how it affects the self-esteem of adolescents. It also attempted to assess the relation of positive parenting with an adolescent’s level of self-esteem. The sample of the study consisted of 200 adolescents (100 males &amp;100 females) with an age range between 16-18 years. Data was collected through questionnaire based instruments and demographic datasheet. Non-probability; convenient sampling technique was used to collect the data. Parental Authority Questionnaire developed by Dr.John.R.B (1991) was used to assess parental authority or disciplinary practices from the child’s point view while Rifai’s (1999) self-esteem scale was used to examine adolescent’s level of selfesteem. Result of the current study revealed that an adolescent‘s level of self-esteem differs with respect to differences in Parenting styles used by parents. The findings further indicated that positive or authoritative parenting is associated with more desirable child behavior and better self-esteem as <br>compared to the other two parenting styles. The results also showed a highly significant main effect of gender on adolescent’s self-esteem and found significant differences between male and female adolescents on the level of self-esteem. The present study affirmed that parents are the role models <br>for their children and exert a powerful control on child’s personality and behavior a. The study highlights that parent-child relationships are among the strongest predictors of an adolescent’s level of self-esteem and parental supports, encouragement, praise, and physical affection, is positively associated with increased level of self-esteem in adolescents. <br><br></p> Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 27 May 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Representation of War Trauma, Fracturing Experiences and Oppression in Sinan Antoon’s The Corpse Washer <p>War trauma of non-Western countries and regions has always been neglected and marginalized by the Wstern intelligentsia. Their concepts and theories of trauma remained politically limited to the Western trauma of Holocaust, 9/11 and the others only. In the recent past, the non-Western Anglophone writers, theorists and scholars have tried to give voice to their respective trauma experiences of war and war crimes done to their people. Arab Anglophone writers also contributed to the field to resist the ‘othering’ and to make the outer world get abreast of the strategic war violence conducted in the Arab world. SinanAntoon, an Iraq-American diaspora novelist is also a resonant voice in this regard. His novel The Corpse Washer narrated in the backdrop of perpetual martial exercises in Iraq has been selected for the present study. Key characters and the exemplary key situations have been analyzed through the theoretical threads of abreactive model of Freud modified and advanced by Cathy Caruth in her works. The tenets of the model conjoined with the ideas of llatency’ and PTSD symptoms explained by Cathy Caruth have been propped up by the other related theorists. The research will be an impressive addition to the field and it can be implicated to all those regions which remained or are currently under the clouds of war.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 27 May 2022 00:00:00 -0400 A CORPUS BASED DIACHRONIC STUDY OF VERB COMPLEMENTATION PATTERN IN PAKISTANI ENGLISH <p>This study is about the verb complementation pattern of Pakistani English. Corpus based approach was adopted to conduct the diachronic study. Corpus from 1947 to 1986 was collected and divided into the four decades. Main concern of the study was to conduct the comparative study about the use of (to infinitive) and gerund as verb complement and to see the change with the passage of time about these complementation patterns. Twenty verbs were selected with the help of grammars and the research conducted by (Aziz 2010) and reported the verbs which carry (to infinitive) pattern. Those twenty common verbs were selected with on the basis of research and with the help of grammar which carry both these patterns. Corpus was analyzed with the<br>help of Antconc concordance lines were developed of these verbs and each verb with its concordance and all forms of verbs were studied separately. Results of the study showed Pakistani writers use (to infinitive) pattern at a higher frequency than gerund as verb complementation and this tendency changed with the passage of time. Results of the 1st corpus higher frequency of gerund but with the passage of time this tendency changed and frequency of (to infinitive) increased. It can be concluded from the study that use of gerund which works as noun makes the process of nominalization. Nominalization makes the writing more complex, Pakistani being non-native avoid the use of gerund and use (to infinitive) at a higher frequency and keep the writing simple.<br>&nbsp;</p> Muhammad Farukh Arsalan, Prof. Dr. Asim Mehmood, Attia Rasool, Hira Haroon Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 30 May 2022 00:00:00 -0400 THE ROLE OF TEACHER’S BEHAVIOUR ON ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING: A STUDY OF HIGH ACHIEVERS AT INTERMEDIATE LEVEL <p>This research paper has focused to find out the role of teacher’s behaviour on English language learning of the students at the intermediate level. The behaviour of the teacher in this study has been measured by the standard inventory devised by Murray and the interview of the randomly selected <br>students who were asked close-ended questions. This standard inventory consists of nine components of behaviour (clarity, enthusiasm, interaction, organization, pacing, disclosure, speech, rapport and teaching Aids). As for as the academic performance of the students is concerned, it has been measured by the percentage of the students they scored in their first year preboard exams. The researcher took the whole sample of the high achiever group of 137 students studying at Nusrat Jehan Boys College (NJBC) and Nusrat Jehan Girls College (NJGC) Chenab Nagar Chiniot in the first year at the intermediate level. The preboard results of the students were statistically analyzed to find out the correlation between the behaviour of the teacher and the academic performance of the students. Data analysis has proved that teachers’ behaviour has a significant relationship with the academic performance of the students. Of these, three components (Clarity, Pacing and Teaching Aids) have a significant relationship with the academic achievements of the students while six other <br>parts of the teachers’ behaviour inventory (Enthusiasm, Interaction, Organization, Disclosure, Speechand Rapport) have no significant relationship with academic performance of the students.<br><br></p> Copyright (c) 2022 Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 -0400 SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FARMERS ATTITUDE TOWARDS AGRICULTURAL INNOVATIONS AND ITS INFLUENCE ON SUGARCANE PRODUCTIVITY <p>The foremost aim of the current research was to investigate whether attitudinal factors towards modern agricultural technologies have a positive impact on productivity or not. The study was designed and carried out in the Central Valley of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, with a sample size of 384 farmers chosen using a multistage random sampling technique. The data were collected using an interview schedule and evaluated into bi-variate and multivariate results, while chi-square test and Kendall's Tau-c statistics were used to determine the relationship between attitudes toward agricultural innovation and sugarcane productivity. At the multivariate level, the association was checked between variables while controlling the family socioeconomic status of the respondents. Findings of the study revealed that the sugarcane productivity decreased when the farmers use old traditional means of farming, do not take the risk of new technologies and other inputs, the influence and opinion lead inside the communities do not make the favorable attitude of the farmers towards innovations, and or due to illiteracy and lack of knowledge they cannot operate modern technology on their fields. Through educating, imparting technical skills, and through influential community leaders, the favorable attitude of farmers towards innovative agricultural technologies can be formed which can solve the solution of food crises in the country.<br>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) 2022 Tue, 07 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 TEACHERS’ USE OF HOMEWORK AS A CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT TOOL IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS <p>In this article, teachers’ perspectives on the use of homework were collected by exploratory sequential mixed method design.The participants of the study were 30 elementary school teachers. A semi-structured interview technique was adopted for the study. Data were analyzed by creating codes and themes. Data was collected on the use of homework to prepare and motivate students for the next lessons.The study analyzed the purposes for which homework is assigned and the types of homework. The study assessed the use of homework to practice and extend newly learnedknowledge in the classroom. The study also examined the use of homework to increase test scores and grades of students.The findings of the study showed that in Elementary schools science, Math, and English classes, the usual homework is to read, reread and practice the most important facts covered in the classroom. Students are occasionally assigned tasks to explore the lessons to be taught in the upcoming class or to extend students’ in-class learning experiences by outside-of-school learning.<br>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) 2022 Tue, 07 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 ANALYSIS OF STREAM OF CONSCIOUSNESS TECHNIQUE IN FLIGHT BY SHERMAN ALEXIE <p>The present study analyzes streams of consciousness as a narrative mode in Sherman Alexie’s novel ‘Flight’. The different themes in the novels were shown with the help of this narrative mode. The method of close reading and interpretive techniques in the light of the modernism theory were used in the study which allows the utilization of different attitudes, usages, practices, expressions, ways of living and thinking and by taking into account the changing situation of the society. The analysis showed the thematic relevance of the narrative mode to show the protagonist’s mental involvement, artistically displayed. The asymmetric arrangement of life is shown by the fragmentary way of presentation of reality subjectively through the shifting themes in the novel which made Zits realize that forgiveness is better than revenge to achieve the peace of mind through different psychological transformational journeys.The study has application in many fields like teaching human behaviour through literature because it analyses the complexity of human lives depicted through modern <br>narrative modes like stream of consciousness technique. The many themes in the novel could only be depicted through this technique because the technique helps us dive deep into the mind of the characters. The study has novelty in sense of analyzing the themes of novel through the prism of the selected mode of narration. It finds out why this particular narrative technique was used and how the works fits into the modernist experimentation in mode of narration.<br><br></p> Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 10 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 SOCIAL NORMS, SUBMISSION AND STOCKHOLM SYNDROME CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF LOUISE GLUCK’S TWO MYTHOLOGICAL POEMS: A MYTH OF INNOCENCE AND A MYTH OF DEVOTION <p>Pakistan is a male dominant country where women are not just subjugated under patriarchy but to societal norms as well. In this social context, this research paper addresses the question of how Stockholm syndrome can be found in the women of Pakistan. The researcher has aimed to break down the power dynamics between the men and the women of Pakistan through the lens of psychoanalytical framework and Stockholm syndrome. This article is a qualitative research article and it studies two characters, Persephone and Hades, from Greek mythology that Louise Glück uses in her two poems: A Myth of Innocence and A Myth of Devotion compiled in her book Averno (2006). This article identifies Persephone as a victim of Stockholm syndrome representing Ego under stress and the reasons behind why she is captivated by Hades. It also studies Hades as an abductor of Persephone and the representation of Id that fully takes over him. The poems have been written by an American but they are applied on Pakistani men and women .The findings of this article highlight that women in Pakistan may become the victim of abuse by their spouses, but yet choose to stay with them either because of their attachment with their partner/tormentor or feeling pressurized by the society and its twisted and hypocritical rules. When women choose to defy these rules they become the victim of domestic violence.<br>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 09 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 ROOTED COSMOPOLITANISM IN MOHSIN HAMID’S THE RELUCTANT FUNDAMENTALIST (2007) <p>The present literary study posits the argumentthat Mohsin Hamid’s novel The Reluctant Fundamentalist (2007) delineates Rooted cosmopolitanism as a balance between the extremes of European Universalist cosmopolitanism and the insular parochialism supported by chauvinist nationalists and communitarians. The themes, characters, narrative technique and linguistic aspect of the narrative are explored for the representation of rooted cosmopolitanism and the ways it challenges economic neo-imperialism, asymmetrical politico-cultural globalization and stereotyping on the basis of religion. To substantiate the claim in relation to this particular strain and motifin the novel, the theoretical concepts of nationalism, cultural affiliation and glocalization, from within the theory of Rooted Cosmopolitanism are applied to substantiate the claim in the analysis of the fictional work. A close reading of the novel is done to show that Mohsin Hamid’s Rooted Cosmopolitanism negates and challenges the narratives of both globalism and localism in the novel selected for the study.<br><br></p> Copyright (c) 2022 Tue, 14 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS AND TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE OF FORECASTING NATURAL DISASTER (A CASE STUDY OF DISTRICT SWAT KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA) <p>This study was sought to investigate community ability of forecasting flood and association with their demographic characteristics. The study was conducted during 2021, in high risk and low risk area to flood in district Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A total of 190 households were interviewed through structure questionnaire. Data were analyzed through Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 19. The Chi-square test was used to determine association between some characteristics of respondent and traditional knowledge of forecasting flood. Main finding of this study revealed that 90% of the respondents were aware of Traditional Knowledge of Forecasting Flood (TKFF) and 93% were acknowledging it effectiveness. Education level, age and residency at high risk and low risk area were significantly associated with TKFF.<br><br></p> Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 10 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 EXPLORING THE EFFICIENCY OF DISPUTE RESOLUTION COUNCIL (DRC) FOR PEACEFUL SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES IN DISTRICT LOWER DIR <p>The Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa introduced Dispute Resolution Councils for peaceful settlement of disputes in the existing justice system at several Police Stations of the province. The mission of this project is to facilitate the common person in getting his/her issues resolved through an alternate process of restorative justice by solving their disputes on urgent basis that would be time and cost effective. The study was designed to explore the Efficiency of DRC for peaceful settlement of disputes in District Dir Lower of KP. Objectives of the study were formulated as “to find out the Efficiency of DRC for peaceful settlement of disputes resolution in District Dir Lower of KP. Quantitative research model was applied in the current study. Secondary data was collected from <br>Head Office of DRC.Findings of the study show that majority of the respondents were enough confidant that DRC is playing a vital role while providing easy justice to the common public. Dominant portion of the respondents were agreed that DRC plays an efficient and effective role in decreasing the Disputes in the community. <br><br></p> Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND TEACHERS’ WORK PERFORMANCE <p>The present study aimed to explore the relationship between transformational leadership of principals&nbsp; and work performance of secondary school teachers. The study was descriptive in nature and was conducted on a sample of 313 secondary school teachers (193 male and 120 female) of district Dera <br>Ismail Khan, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The survey questionnaire was used for the collection of data from the respondents. The correlation and t-test were used as the statistical techniques for the analysis of data. The results indicated that there is significant strong correlation between the transformational leadership of principals and teachers’ work performance at secondary level, in Dera Ismail Khan. Moreover, there was significant difference in the transformational leadership style of male and female heads at secondary level. The male heads transformational leadership was stronger as compared to female heads. The study also concluded that there is a significant difference in the work performance of male and female teachers at secondary level in district Dera Ismail Khan. The work performance of male teachers was better than the female teachers at secondary level.<br><br></p> Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF GAMING ON PAKISTANI PUBG PLAYERS <p>Online gaming is a source for entertainment played by people of all genders and ages. Gaming has both positive and negative psychological effects but the negative effects are far more than the positive effects. This study investigated the psychological effects of gaming on Pakistani PUBG players. No doubt people play gaming for entertainment purpose but excessive gaming can lead to gaming addiction which can further lead to psychological effects like sleeping disorders, stress and depression. Gaming addiction can also have damaging impact on physical, emotional and social health. It is also related with eating irregularities, exhaustion, mood disorders, social ineffectiveness, sleep deprivation, obesity, suicide and separation from family and friends. IGD can be depicted in individuals who play for a longer period of time and playing for longer periods can affect the daily routine of the individual along with poor performance in work and studies. The result of the current research study indicates that gaming does have an effect on the psychological health of the gamers. The results concluded that gaming does have an effect on concentration, aggression, empathy, stress and analytical ability of the players. In conclusion of the results, individuals can learn how to fulfill the psychological needs by the help of the psycho-training program and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). It can be checked after the therapy that if there is any change in the levels of the gaming addiction in the individual.</p> Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 16 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 ROLE OF PRESS IN POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION OF YOUTH OF PAKISTAN DURING 2018 ELECTIONS <p>This paper examined the political upheaval in Pakistan, the role of the Press and the emerging trend of political socialization of youth are inevitablybecoming a necessity for the political parties. They use the press for their media campaigns, promote their manifestos and to get the support of public. The main motive this study is to dig out the role of press and political socialization of youth during the elections of 2018. Survey design was applied, while questionnaire was used to gather data regarding the political socialization of youth and the role of press. The findings of the study revealed that different political parties employ a variety of strategies to politically socialize the youth, including designed campaigns and promoted their agendas through the media in a way that can socialize the youth. <br><br></p> Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 16 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 SECURITY SECTOR REFORM IN PAKISTAN’S KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA TRIBAL DISTRICTS <p>In its quest to stabilize the newly-merged tribal districts (formerly the Federally Administered Tribal Areas or FATA), Pakistan introduced a broad array of governance reforms in the region in May 2018. The reforms replaced the archaic colonial-era administrative system with modern state institutionsexisting in the adjoining KP. However, peace remains of paramount importance in the smooth and swift implementation of the reforms in a conflict-prone complex setting. This paper discusses the current security scenario in the erstwhile FATA and the existing challenges facing a successful implementation of the security sector reforms (SSR) being introduced by the government. It argues that the sole focus on the law enforcement aspect of the security sector reform does not comply with the diverse and complex security needs of the region especially in the aftermath of the Taliban coming into power in neighbouring Afghanistan in August 2021. The situation requires an allencompassing approach for SSR framework.<br>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 16 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 EFFECTS OF TELEVISION FOOD ADVERTISEMENTS ON CHILDREN: A PARENTAL PERSPECTIVE <p>Advertising is the most persuasive medium which has acquired an important role in moulding our modern day lives. Televised advertising targeted towards children is considered to be one of the controversial areas of discussion among the researchers because such advertising has developed a lot of behavioural and health related issues in children. This has raised questions about the ethicality of such advertisements. This study is intended to find out ethical concerns of television’s food advertisements directed towards children from parent’s perspective. The methodology which is used for this particular research is semi structured interviews. Three Pakistani TVCs related to children food products are selected and later parents of 3-14 years old children are interviewed to <br>identify the ethical concerns in these ads. The findings prove that most of the parents consider TV advertisements a great instigator in affecting children behavioral patterns. They are of the view that ethical concerns in food advertisements become prominent when such advertisements contribute to the changes in children’s eating patterns. A list of recommendations is provided in the end for parents and regulatory authorities to minimize the effects of such unethical advertisements on children’s wellbeing. <br><br></p> Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 16 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 TONAL ANALYSIS OF MANKIYALI: AN ACOUSTIC STUDY <p>Mankiyali is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in remote hilly areas by a small community in northern Pakistan. It is an undocumented language and is in immediate need of research from a linguistic viewpoint. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the tone of Mankiyali. For that to achieve, an audio file was generated that contained various utterances of the native speakers. The file contained three sets which were recorded from three speakers. Each set had three words that carried different meanings in the given three sets. The set list was distributed among the selected participants, who were instructed to utter these words ata natural-normal speed rate. They first uttered the words with meaning and then without meaning. The utterances of all three speakers <br>were recorded usinga high-quality ZoomH6 recorder and saved ona laptop. To obtain the intended objectives of the study, the recorded data were analysed through Praat. There were three data sets; only one speaker was randomly selected for a single set, and the collected utterances were then analysed. Similarly, another speaker was chosen for another set, and so on. The results were obtained through acoustics analysis using Praat, and the spectrograms were taken of every word with various pitches, respectively. The results revealed that there were rising, falling, rising-falling tones in the utterances of the native speakers. Thus, it was concluded that Mankiyali has a threeway contrastive and lexical contour tone.<br><br></p> Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 16 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 ISLAMIST MILITANCY IN SOUTH & NORTH WAZIRISTAN DISTRICTS <p>Taliban militancy in the tribal districts of North and South Waziristan is a hangover from the colonial past. Enshrined in the Frontier Crimes Regulation (FCR), weak state conditions especially on counts of legislation, judicial arbitration and execution have historically paved the way for armed mobilizations in these districts. After the independence of Pakistan, the central government continued with the colonial dispensation of the FCR in North and South Waziristan. Like previously under the British Raj, the occurrence of armed mobilizations continued unabated after the independence. This study purports to sketch an historical account of militancy in the pre and post-independence eras and to account for the occurrence of militancy from the British advent in these two tribal districts until the rise of Taliban there after the US invasion of Afghanistan. Secondary and primary sources and survey method were used for the conduct of the research. Secondary sources include books, research articles, and newspaper and magazine reports. Primary sources that were used include constitution and the FCR followed by a couple of interviews.<br><br></p> Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 16 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 THE ROLE OF MOTHER TONGUE IN LEARNING ENGLISH AT THE INTERMEDIATE LEVEL (A Case Study of Government Degree College Batkhela, District Malakand) <p>It is undeniable fact that mother tongue as a medium of instruction in L2 language teaching and learning is still important, relevant and should be investigated. The purpose of this study is to look into the role, and importance of the mother tongue in learning English at the intermediate level at Government Degree CollegeBatkhela Malakand Pakistan. It seeks to investigate the issue regarding the usage of mother tongue ineducational institutions. In this study, we have employed quantitative methods. This study found that English language teachers routinely interact with students in Pashto in English language lessons, which the students feel easy. Pashto is frequently used as a medium of instruction by English language teachers. Furthermore, the Grammar Translation Method is frequently used by teachers. Students have a positive attitude towards their &nbsp;tongue since their knowledge and learning background does not value the direct method of learning or excessive use of the Target language (English). Based on the findings, English language <br>teachers at Government Degree College Batkhela should teach students not only in English but also in their mother tongue more frequently. Certainly, the English language should be employed as a medium of instruction at the Inter level, but it is also vital to employ Pashto for the students' convenience. Furthermore, it is suggested that English language teachers must receive pre-service and in-service training in innovative ELT methodologies.<br>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 TRADITIONAL MECHANISM AS AN INSTRUMENT OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN CURBING SECTARIAN MILITANCY <p>The study was carried out with triangulation of methods at Tribal District Kurram and District Hangu of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A sample size of 500 respondents was selected through purposive sampling techniques consisting of Maliks and religious clerics. A three level Likert Scale based questioner was developed for collection quantitative data and the same was presented at bi-variate level of analysis via using Chi-Square test application. Study respondents were asked qualitatively about un-cleared quantitative responses and their responses were recorded in black and white and presented in support of the positivistic data. The study concluded that local people considered Pakhtunwali is essential for dispute resolution. Jirga is a consensus institution of dispute settlement in the area and its ensures equal representation from the followers of both sects. Jirga decision is widely respected and acknowledged by the conflicting parties and non-observance of Jirga decision either leads towards burning and demolishing of the offender house or the violators is forcibly migrated from the area. Jirga composition gets altered due to the last wave of Talibanization and they thwarted the Jirga dynamics in the area. Due to eruption of sectarian clashes, well-reputed elders of the area migrated to other parts of the country and resultantly their vacuum was filled by the younger. They are <br>either less equipped with traditional knowledge or decided matters of conflict in unjustified manner. Jirga is being organized both privately and publicly and the role administrative bodies is influential in moulding Jirga decisions. Frequent participation of both sect followers in one another daily life is <br>indicative of social cohesion. The concept of Chagha, Shalgoona, and Salwehtoona, Tiga and Badraga are still in existence in the area without membership from the opponent sect followers.The code of Pakhtunwali should be safeguarded through strengthening Jirga institution and the concept of Khalaat should be strictly banned were presented some of the recommendations in light of study findings. <br><br></p> Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 16 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 USE OF AMPLIFIERS ACROSS DISCIPLINES: A CORPUS BASED STUDY OF PAKISTANI RESEARCH ARTICLES <p>The present research is going to find out the use of amplifiers by Pakistani writers in their academic writing. In this research, types of amplifiers are also finding out. The model for the study has been taken by Quirk et al. (1985). Total 400 research papers were taken from eight different disciplines like English linguistics, English literature, economics, engineering, information technology, business, psychology, zoology. For analysis purposes in research three software’s have been used; first, there is multidimensional analysis tagger, second is AntConc tool, and third is SPSS (statistical software) used. Statistical software is used to differentiate the difference between sections and disciplines in the research. A wide range of amplifiers have been used here but in the results, amplifiers are used below the moderate level in Pakistan. <br><br></p> Miss. Ammara Qamar, Dr. Aleem Shakir Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 16 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 THE LEADERSHIP ROLE OF PROJECT MANAGERS IN DETERMINING THE SUCCESSFULNESS OF A GREEN BUILDING PROJECT IN PAKISTAN <p>In recent years, green construction has become increasingly essential in the country's construction industry. Leadership is critical to the success of any project, particularly GBC projects.The goal of this research is to look into the relationship between GBC projects and project managers' leadership <br>styles. The study focuses on two aspects of project managers' leadership behaviors: task-oriented leadership and relationship-oriented leadership. Furthermore, the role of leadership competence in mediating the relationship between leadership behavior and GBC project performance is studied. This <br>study tries to define project managers' leadership and styles in green building projects in Pakistan. A questionnaire survey was used to identify 13 leadership traits, including the desire for job success and efficiency. Two groups can be established out of these 13 project leadership attributes based on <br>the Direction and task-oriented leadership, as well as the relationship-based leadership. Within extant literature, most of the research on project-based organizations is related to construction and engineering. As in Pakistan, the construction industry is emerging and there is a scarcity of research <br>on its different dimensions in which leadership behavior is also one of the dimensions in the industry. The findings revealed that project managers' task-oriented leaderships receive greater attention, whereas their relationships with their subordinates are frequently disregarded. This study will provide <br>project managers and scholars working on green building projects with a better knowledge of project management leadership and styles. The current research which investigates the effect of leadership behaviors of project managers on the success of GBC projects and leadership competence is taken <br>as a mediator variable will be an important contribution.<br>&nbsp;</p> Engr. Shehryar Khan, Architect Iftikhar Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 17 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Review of Book titled: Roma Minority Youth Across Cultural Contexts: Taking a Positive Approach to Research, Policy, and Practice <p>Review of Book titled: <br>Roma Minority Youth Across Cultural Contexts: Taking a Positive Approach to Research, Policy, and Practice</p> Dr. Sadia Malik Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 20 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 PRAGMATIC ANALYSIS OF INTERNET MEMES ON DISTANT LEARNING <p>This study is a pragmatic content analysis that explores the internet memes on e-learning or distant learning during the pandemic 2020-2021. The study examines the language and trends of different memes used for distant learning from three perspectives- the teachers, parents, and students. For its <br>framework for analysis, this paper draws on the pragmatic notion of implicature, specifically the quantity implicature used in the memes related to distant learning. The study reveals that there are more meanings implicated in memes which may be meaningful as it is directly related to their context. <br>Since covid was a global phenomenon, everyone went through the same challenges, hence the same meanings must be interpreted as implied by the meme generators. The implicature may be used through different linguistic devices such as sarcasm, irony, or hyperbole, to create a comic effect and <br>convey the message at the same time. This study aims to provide a pragmatic study of the visual and textual nature of these covid-distant-learning memes. In doing so, it aims to establish a framework for future studies- a contrasting study of memes, a semantic and pragmatic view to further explore the <br>nature of the linguistic qualities of internet memes.<br>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 A CRITIQUE OF IMPULSES, DRAWBACKSAND CHALLENGES TO PAKISTANI WOMEN’S WRITING IN ENGLISH <p>Pakistani literature in English being integral part of wider postcolonial canon is now recognized and approved in academia as literature of its own. Today, a number of writers hailing from different socio-political backgrounds are contributing to the English writing in Pakistan. In this variety of authors Pakistani women occupy critical position. This research paper aims to analyzeand understand invisible factors and impetuses that result in production of this bulk of literature. The paper will also study contemporary drawbacks and future challenges to women’s writing in Pakistan. The findings of the study reveal that, Pakistaniwomen write in English in order to challenge the powerful religious and political factions that undermine their position in society. Besides, English language provides them voice that is to be heard at international arena. Furthermore, women’s writing is exaggerated, melodramatic, political and monotonous. In comparison to Indian women writing, Pakistani woman writing is naïve and unsophisticated. Moreover, Pakistani women’s writers face challenges like rising extremism and reconciling feminism and Islam in the fiction. Thus, the paper will help understand the worth, degree of influence and future prospective of women in literary field.<br><br></p> Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 20 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 PERSUASION AND RESISTANCE: CONTESTING TRADITION IN SALT AND SAFFRON BY KAMILA SHAMSIE <p>This paper attempts to demonstrate, expatriate Pakistani writer Kamila Shamsie’s use of narrative in Salt and Saffron (2000) to contest and subvert dominant narratives of past by coming to term with it in a diverse perspective. The author’s description of family lore aims to expose resistance which breeds<br>a strong clash of opinion among those who are displaced and divided but spiritually united. This paper investigates how conciliation with the memories of past and present is crucial in forging a place of belonging in diaspora. The narrative reflects in the backdrop of partition, three generations of women confronting racism, patriarchal oppression and rigidity of traditions. Kamila Shamsie epitomizes skilled arbitration between drastically opposite customs, social systems, and traditions, exhibited boththrough the careful use of memory and history as rhetorical and narrative strategies and through the experience embodied within the text. The representation of national history is a both forward and backward looking ambivalent process in this novel. The layering stories of enduring family traditions and unconventional role of women, protesting against racism, patriarchal oppression and social class are employed as mechanics of persuasion and resistance. By endorsing resistance from diverse subject positions, women from three generations are able to create an alternate image of Pakistani women, to reveal a transformation from tradition to modernity and challenge the impermeability of borders, both in present and past and reality and fiction. The narrative proves to be especially effective in the battle to change strong attitudes. Shamsie has notably reinstated image of her homeland as a land of cultural assimilation, integration and coexistence by reaching to terms with the complexities of past and present.<br><br></p> Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 20 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 EFL STUDENTS’ RESPONSE AND ENGLISH LEARNING OUTCOMES (ELO) TOWARDS ONLINE LEARNING VIA ZOOM MEETING APPLICATIONS AMIDST COVID 19 <p>When the Covid-19 pandemic hit, the Indonesian government temporarily closed school access to prevent the spread, and suggested distance learning through educational platforms that could be used by educational institutions and educators to reach students via the internet and minimize interference from others activity. While there are many other tools available, zoom cloud meeting is one of the most used because of its ability to facilitate group learning and communication in the same way as face-to-face meetings. This research is expected to explain the challenges and benefits of using zoom as an alternative to traditional distance learning in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic in universities. This study aims to determine students’ responses to online learning based on Zoom application in teaching English for Indonesian language education study programs. The type of research used in this study is a mixed method. The data is obtained directly from respondents, which includes students’ responses to online learning based on the Zoom application. The sources of data are in the form of questionnaires, interviews, and learning outcomes. The instruments in this study used a questionnaire and an interview. Data collection techniques used non-test data collection techniques, namely interview questionnaires and learning outcomes. The data is analyzed with <br>qualitative and quantitative techniques. The interview results show that the Zoom application is suitable for use in online learning because it is easy to access. Constraints experienced when using the Zoom application are internet networks that are not good and wasteful of quota. The learning&nbsp; outcomes of students of the Indonesian language education study program in the subject of English are 85.79 in the good category. The results of this study show that the total acquisition value on the questionnaire sheet is 2.614, and the average value is 68.79</p> Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 20 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 EFFECTS OF THE APPOINTMENT OF GOVERNMENT SCHOOL TEACHERS WITHOUT PROFESSIONAL DEGREE / QUALIFICATION IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA <p>This is a descriptive study consisted of different stakeholders and their views about the effects of professional degree regarding to theappointment of the public sector Secondary SchoolTeachers. The study was limited to the district D.I.Khan. Self-structured &amp; closed ended questionnaire was used to collect the data from the Teachers, HODs and officials of education department. The population of the study was comprised of 32 Secondary Schools (Boys &amp; Girls) and 32 Headmasters / Headmistress / Principals (male &amp; female), 256 SSTs (128 male &amp; 128female) Teachers and 12 Officials (6 male &amp; 6 female) of Education department. The 300 respondents filled the questionnaire with their wish. The researcher used the Stratified multi-stage sampling technique and then inferential statistics for analysis of data. All the data was analyzed by applying ANOVA and using t-test to find the significance difference of means of both respondents i.e. male &amp; female. Results of the study reflected that most of the people were against the recruitment of untrained teachers and maximum <br>teachers were in the favour of professionally qualified inducted teachers.<br>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 20 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 TEACHERS’ PERCEPTION TOWARDS TEACHING ENGLISH GRAMMAR THROUGH COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH AT TERRITORY LEVEL (A CASE STUDY OF DISTRICT MULTAN) <p>Communicative Language Teaching Approach has a wide range of benefits to minimize the language learning hurdles. Modern trends in second language learning, requires such approaches which could make the students ``learned and spoken”. This phenomenon can enhance the linguistic as well as <br>communicative competence of the students in terms of grammar understanding and language use. Present study is conducted to understand the perceptions of teachers regarding English grammar teaching through communicative approach. The study is conducted in District Multan through the <br>questionnaire tool. The questionnaire is used as a survey to know the perceptions of the English language teachers regarding teaching English grammar through communicative approach. Selected sample of the study is 200 English language teachers teaching in different institutes of Multan. Study <br>is based on convenient sampling. Data analysis is made through Microsoft Excel 2010 in which the percentages of the responses and mean value are calculated to know the significance of the statements. The results described that the teachers of District Multan are well aware of the significance of the communicative approach for English language grammar and they very much intended to apply this approach for effective grammar learning results.<br><br></p> Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 20 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 DEVELOPING ENTREPRENEURIAL MINDSET OF UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS: A SYNTHETIC LITERATURE REVIEW <p>The objective of this paper is to explore an overview of the factors that influence entrepreneurial&nbsp; mindset (EM). The study also aims to outline the theories, areas of effective EM program structure, and attributes of a successful Entrepreneur, especially the areas left under-addressed. A comprehensive method of a synthetic literature review was employed to present the areas of EM concepts. A four-step process was applied to select and classify relevant papers. Research methods and sampling were analyzed from the perspective of EM development. Factors influencingEM were recommended through synthesis data of literature. No mutually considered EM concept was found. Instead, scholars have suggested and explored various number of attributes for developing EM. <br>These attributes can be divided into antecedents of EM, Environment based attributes, and attributes associated with university program structure, and meta-cognitive attributes of EM. There is no consistent theory and definition found for EM related studies. To check the validity, The EM concept <br>might be investigated with more socio-economic backgrounds, cultures, or families with diverse backgrounds people. This review of literature suggested the latest literature ranges between 2011 to 2021 by compiling core attributes of the EM concept at University, and at its antecedents. The study identified recent gaps and provided recommendations to overcome the problems and promote EM among university students.<br>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 20 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 ADOPTING BLENDED LEARNING METHOD AT HIGHER EDUCATION: EXPLORING THE STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS, SATISFACTION AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT <p>The purpose of this study was to explore students’ satisfaction, measure effectiveness of blended teaching technique and to see the difference in academic achievement of students learning with blended and face to face mode. Align with the aimed of the study, accessible population of the study was those BS Science education students who were learning thorough blended mode in Institute of Education and Research (IER) in Spring semester 2018. Purposive sampling technique was used to select desired sample (N=51). Blended learning toolkit (2011) was adapted to measure the perception, satisfaction and effectiveness of blended learning in undergraduate students. The reliability of the instrument was α = .883. The 50% content were taught through face to face <br>interaction and remaining 50% through an online blog. It was found that integration of blended learning approach has influenced academic achievement of students because students’ mean scores were higher in blended mode (M=42.0) contrary to traditional mode (M= 36.5). Most importantly, students claimed that blended learning approach was cost and time effective. Study concluded that blended learning facilitates students in conceptual understanding and students considering blended mode of teaching more effective, interactive, and productive.<br>&nbsp;</p> Sadia Bashir, Hina Amin, Sana Amin Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 EFFECTIVENESS OF ONLINE LEARNING STRATEGY IN HIGHER EDUCATION LEVEL: STUDENTS’ PERSPECTIVE <p>The online learning strategy was used as the substitute of traditional learning strategy during Covid19 conditions. Due to suddenly transferred of learning mode from traditional to online learning mode, there was a need to find the effectiveness of online learning strategy in higher education under Covid19 situation. So, the objective of current research was to discover the effectiveness of online mode of&nbsp; learning for students studying in undergraduate and postgraduate programs at Ghazi University, Dera Ghazi Khan.The data collected from 200 male and female students was analysed by using SPSS-25 <br>package. The outcomes of the research showed that online mode of learning strategy in higher education proved very effective learning strategy during Covid-19 conditions. The male students perform better than female students by this online learning strategy during Covid-19 conditions.<br><br></p> Ghulam Mujtaba Yasir, Iqra Aizad Khosa, Muhammad Hafeez Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 ATTITUDE OF FEMALES TOWARDS THE COUNTERFEIT PRODUCTS OF LUXURIOUS BRANDS: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF PESHAWAR DISTRICT <p>The research study was designed to explore the attitudes of women towards counterfeits products and their willingness to knowingly purchase counterfeit luxury brands. Preferences of 100 women aged 20-40 years from different areas of Peshawar were recorded in relation to the affordability, quality and satisfaction level of counterfeit products. Data was collected using convenience sampling method through a self-administered questionnaire and the recorded data was analyzed through chi-square testusing Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Highly significant results were identified among the sample of both age groups i.e., 20-29 years and 30-40 years in relation to counterfeit products. Majority of the respondents preferred buying <br>counterfeit products of luxurious brands as they were more affordable and were satisfied with the quality of the product as well. Similarly, women were greatly comfortable and pleased with the use of counterfeit products as with any branded product.<br><br></p> Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 VICTIMIZATION OF FEMALES IN KHALID HOSSEINI’S “A THOUSAND SPLENDID SUNS” <p>The primary source of this research paper is “A Thousand Splendid suns”. The rights of women were seriously examined in this book, especially in the Taliban region. In Afghanistan, women are always considered second sex and brutal victim of patriarchy. Women are “East”, and “orient” through the lens of Orientalism. They are “others”, colonized and suppressed creatures of the planet Earth. In A Thousand Splendid Suns, women are portrayed as subjugated in a patriarchal society. Hosseini presented two types of women in the novel; traditional and modern. Laila represents contemporary “ladies”, whereas Mariam represents traditional women. Despite the difference in representation, both women struggle to end patriarchal tyranny. This piece critically analyses the status of women as "Subalterns" in the book, as well as how the voices of the subaltern are reflected by the novel's characters, and how the term Islam is used to enslave women in the story. Through content analysis and textual analysis, the lens of Spivak and Islamic feminism are used to explore the different types <br>of gender discrimination that women faced in the novel and how this oppression and discrimination affects voiceless women's psychology. Moreover, the resistance of female characters against patriarchy is also explored thoroughly in the paper.<br><br></p> Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 04 Jul 2022 00:00:00 -0400 IMPLICATIONS OF CALLING NAMES ON PUNJABI LANGUAGE SPEAKERS <p>Names are an important aspect of individual’s identity. Names are culturally, personally, and historically connected. Therefore, every individual is connected deeply with his/her name. On the contrary, in various languages there are practices of calling names which are also called as hurtful words. These unkind words are type of communicative harassment or can be called as a type of bullying or insult. Therefore, this research will concentrate upon exploring the impact of calling names in Punjabi language amongst Punjabi speakers. Population of this study is from Punjab Province, Pakistan. The sample size is of 100 participants. Data was collected through a structured questionnaire. It was revealed that Punjabi speakers in India and Pakistan disliked this notion of <br>calling names and calling names had a negative impact on Punjabi speakers. Surprisingly, it is also taken as a routine word in candid friends. This study has its further implications.<br><br></p> Muhammad Mooneeb Ali, Dr. Noreen Saba, Dr. Wasim Hassan Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 04 Jul 2022 00:00:00 -0400 OVERCOMING RISKS THROUGH DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL RESILIENCE AMONG HIGHER SECONDARY STUDENTS <p>Excessive dropout rates, students’ absenteeism, emergence of gangsters’ culture, bullying, e-bullying, suicides, increasing number of harassments and drug abuse are common in educational institutions. There is a need to focus on development of psychological resilience along with other competencies among adult students to enable them to cope with all these problems. Educational institutions and family can contribute to develop confidence, competence, primary and secondary control among students. Parents, community, parents, commitment immediate family members and teachers can play a leading role. Even at junior level symptoms of anxiety and depression can be noted among students. This paper focus to study the perceptions of teachers and parents regarding <br>development of psychological resilience among higher secondary and college level schools students. This study aims to study the perceptions of students and teachers about psychological resilience and how psychological resilience help out students to cope with difficult situations. Vast majority higher secondary students perceived that family, peers and friends can contribute to develop psychological resilience among students and can facilitate them to cope with unseen situations, financial problems, career related problems and other difficult circumstances. Parents, teachers and students need to educate about development of resilience. There is a need to include content about psychological resilience in the pre-service and in-service teacher training programmes to ensure a better and supportive psychological environment to the students. <br><br></p> Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 04 Jul 2022 00:00:00 -0400 SIGNIFICATION THROUGH VARIOUS SIGNS, SYMBOLS AND METAPHORS EMPLOYED BY USMAN ALI IN HIS THREE-ACT PLAY THE GUILT <p>The relationships between the ‘signifier’ and the ‘signified’ are referred to as 'signification'. This paper explores “Signification through various signs, symbols and metaphors employed by Usman Ali in his three-act play The Guilt”. Saussure’s discourse on Structuralism, particularly on signs, symbols and <br>semiotics will be referred to catalogue various signs and their significance in the play. Signs take the form of words, images, sounds, odors, flavors, acts or objects, but they have no intrinsic meaning, and become signs only when one invests them with meaning. Usman Ali has presented all three characters of the play-Shera, Gama, Billa-as the representatives of culture of Pakistan by using signs, symbols and metaphors. Objective of this research is to analyze and interpret these signs to explore how they contribute in adding significant meaning to the play. Not much work has been done on Usman Ali’s The Guilt. This research will be a significant contribution in the context of Pakistani literature in English. Future researchers can work on other works of Ali and promote research in the genre of English Drama by Pakistani writers. <br><br></p> Ayesha Sajid Durrani, Dr. Ambreen Shahnaz , Dr. Nagina Kanwal Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 08 Jul 2022 00:00:00 -0400 POLITICIANS’ LINGUISTIC LANDSCAPE IN PAKISTANI PRESS PRE-ELECTION 2018 ADVERTISEMENTS FROM CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS PERSPECTIVE <p>This research paper aims to find out language-manipulative agenda in Pakistani print media advertisements and press ideology for discursive stance by analyzing politicians’ linguistic landscape in pre-election 2018 campaign strategies.It is observed that tough political competition and politicians’ <br>manipulative stance have made the election campaign and media role vaguer. By the involvement of political parties in this competitive race, various discursive techniques and stance in the advertisements are adopted for underlying motives, political fulfillments, and power which are <br>wrapped in the agenda of ideology.This race has emerged in the shape of various discursive strategies that politicians employ to persuade and attract the consumers (voters). Likewise, in the advertisements of Pakistani print media, discursive agenda sent by advertisers (political leaders) is manipulatively communicated as Cook (2001) has said that advertisements are mendacious, and messages are encoded by the senders which can be decoded by using the theories of Critical Discourse Analysis. Therefore, this research will decode politician’s extensively spread messages by using language as an analytic tool in their advertisements. Accordingly, the parameters of this research will take two newspapers i.e. The Dawn and The Express as a sample and method of the <br>research is qualitative. Finally, this analysis will expand and promote the understanding of language manipulation which is decorated by politicians in the stance of ideology to achieve their motives by exploiting the community.<br><br></p> Dr. Waqasia Naeem, Dr. Irfan Abbas, Saima Naeem Copyright (c) 2022 Sun, 10 Jul 2022 00:00:00 -0400