THE FORMATION PROCESS OF REDUPLICATION IN ENGLISH, URDU AND PASHTO: A CROSS-LINGUISTIC PERSPECTIVE
Keywords:Abbi’s Model, Consonant Alteration, English, Formation Processes, MDT, Pashto, Reduplication, Urdu, Vowel Alteration.
This research study examines the concept of Reduplication in English, Urdu, and Pashto. The
formations of reduplicated words and their similarities and differences in the reduplicated structures
and lexicons of English, Urdu, and Pashto have been investigated. Data have been analyzed by
using Morphological Doubling Theory (MDT). By applying Abbi’s (1992) model, two basic types of
Reduplication, i.e., Full-Word Reduplication and Partial-Word Reduplication (eco-words) were
analyzed. The sample technique for this study was random sampling. The data for this study were
collected purposefully (Randomly) from English, Urdu, and Pashto books, magazines and
newspapers.The findings of the study show that the formation process of Full-Reduplication is the
same-by fully duplicating the base form in all the three mentioned languages. Several examples were
examined in these languages and further they have been enlisted separately in the analysis section.
On the other hand, the study shows that the formation process of partial Reduplication varies in these
three languages. In English and Urdu, partial reduplicated words were formed either by vowel
alteration or consonant alteration while in Pashto it was mostly consonant alteration base examples.
Abbi’sModel, Consonant Alteration, English, Formation Processes, MDT, Pashto,
Reduplication, Urdu, Vowel Alteration.
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PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF SOCIETY, EDUCATION AND LANGUAGE (PJSEL)Abbreviated KEY Title: Pak. j. soc. educ. lang. (Online) URL: http://pjsel.jehanf.com/archives.php ISSN 2523-1227 (Online), ISSN 2521-8123 (Print
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